Manners nowadays in big cities like London are particularly non-existent. It’s for a big, strong schoolboy to push an elderly woman aside for the last seat on the bus, much less stand up and offer his seat to her, as he ought to. In fact, it is a to note that if a man does offer his seat to an older woman, it is nearly always a man of the older .
This question of seats in public transport is much argued by young men, who say that, since women have claimed , they no longer deserve to be treated and that those who go out to work should take their turn in the rat race like anyone else. Women have never claimed to be as strong as men. Even if it’s not that young men should stand up for older women, however, the fact remains that good manners should be shown to the old, the and the burdened. Are we really so lost to all ideals of that we can sit there calmly reading the paper or a book, saying to ourselves “First come, first served”, while a gray-haired woman, or a mother with a young child stands? this is too often seen.
Older people, tired and easily from a day’s work, aren’t angels, either. Many a sudden argument or a fierce quarrel as the tired people push and pull each other to get on buses or tubes.
If cities are to remain pleasant places to in at all, however, it seems necessary, not only that communication in should be improved, but also that communication between human beings should be kept smooth and . Shop assistants won’t bother to , taxi drivers shout at each other as they drive dangerously round corners, bus conductors pull the bell their desperate passengers have had time to get on or off the bus, and so on. It seems to us that it’s up to the young and strong to do their small to stop such “worsening”.
Most of us spend our lives seeking the natural world. To this end, we walk the dog, play golf, go fishing, sit in the garden, drink outside rather than inside the pub, have a picnic, live in the suburbs, go to the seaside, buy a weekend place in the country. The most popular free time activity in Britain is going for a walk. And when joggers jog, they don’t run the streets. Every one of them automatically heads to the park or the river. It is my firm belief that not only do we all need nature, but we all seek nature, whether we know we are doing so or not.
But despite this, our children are growing up nature-deprived (丧失). I spent my boyhood climbing trees. These days, children are robbed of these ancient freedoms, due to problems like crime, traffic, the loss of the open spaces and strange new ideas about what is best for children, that is to say, things that can be bought, rather than things that can be found.
The truth is to be found elsewhere. A study in the US: families had moved to better housing and the children were assessed for ADHD (多动症). Those whose housing had more natural views showed an improvement of 19%; those who had the same improvement in material surroundings but no nice view improved just 4%.
A study in Sweden indicated that kindergarten children who could play in a natural environment had less illness and greater physical ability than children used only to a normal playground. A US study suggested that when a school gave children access to a natural environment, the entire school would do better in studies.
Another study found that children play differently in a natural environment. In playgrounds, children create a hierarchy (等级) based on physical abilities, with the tough ones taking the lead. But when a grassy area was planted with bushes, the children got much more into fantasy play, and the social hierarchy was now based on imagination and creativity.
Most bullying (恃强凌弱) is found in schools where there is a tarmac (柏油碎石) playground; the least bullying is in a natural area that the children are encouraged to explore. This reminds me unpleasantly of Sunnyhill School, with its hard tarmac, where I used to hang about in corners dreaming about wildlife.
But children are frequently discouraged from involvement with natural spaces, for health and safety reasons, for fear that they might get dirty or that they might cause damage. So, instead, the damage is done to the children themselves: not to their bodies but to their souls.
One of the great problems of modern childhood is ADHD, now increasingly and expensively treated with drugs. Yet one study after another indicates that contact with nature gives huge benefits to ADHD children. However, we spend money on drugs rather than on green places.
The life of old people is much better when they have access to nature. The most important for the growing population of old people is in quality rather than quantity of years. And study after study finds that a garden is the single most important thing in finding that quality.
In wider and more difficult areas of life, there is evidence to indicate that natural surroundings improve all kinds of things. Even problems with crime and aggressive behaviour are reduced when there is contact with the natural world.
Dr William Bird, researcher from the Royal Society for the Protection of Birds, states in his study, “A natural environment can reduce violent behaviour because its process helps reduce anger and behavior that people might regret later.” Wild places need encouraging for this reason, no matter how small their contribution.
We tend to think human beings are doing nature some kind of favour when we are protecting nature. The error here is far too deep: not only do humans need nature for themselves, but the very idea that humanity and the natural world are separable things is damaging.
Human beings are a species of animals. For seven million years we lived on the planet as part of nature. So we miss the natural world and long for contact with non-human life. Anyone who has patted a dog, stroked a cat, sat under a tree with a glass of beer, given or received a bunch of flowers or chosen to walk through the park on a nice day, understands that.
We need the wild world. It is necessary to our well-being, our health, our happiness. Without other living things around us we are less than human.
41.What is the author’s firm belief?
42.What does a study in Sweden show?
A. The natural environment can help children learn better.
B. More access to nature makes children less likely to fall ill.
C. A good playground helps kids develop their physical abilities.
D. Natural views can prevent children from developing ADHD.
43. Children who have chances to explore natural areas ________.
A. tend to develop a strong love for science
44. What does the author suggest we do to help children with ADHD?
A. Find more effective drugs for them.
45. In what way do elderly people benefit from their contact with nature?
A. They look on life optimistically.
Note: 1gigawtt = 1000 megawatts
SAN FRANCISCO — Apple is cleaning up its manufacturing operations in China to reduce the air pollution caused by the factories that have assembled （装配） hundreds of millions of iPhones and iPads during the past eight years.
The world's most valuable company is working with its Chinese suppliers to eventually produce 2.2 gigawatts of solar power and other renewable energy.
The commitment announced Wednesday represents Apple's latest attempt to prevent the popularity of its devices and digital services from increasing the carbon emissions that are widely believed to change the Earth's climate.
Apple Inc. estimates （估计） 20 million tons of greenhouse gas pollution will be avoided as more of its suppliers rely on renewable energy between now and 2020. That's like having four million fewer cars on the road for a year.
Panels capable of generating （生产） about 200 megawatts of solar power will be financed by Apple in the northern, southern and eastern regions of China, where many of its suppliers are located. The company is teaming up with its Chinese suppliers to build the capacity for the remaining 2 gigawatts of renewable energy, which will be a mix of solar, wind and hydroelectric power.
Foxconn, which runs the factory where the most iPhones are assembled, is pledging to contribute 400 megawatts of solar power as part of the 2-gigawatt commitment. The solar panels to be built by 2018 in China's Henan Province are supposed to produce as much renewable energy as Foxconn's Zhengzhou factory consumes while making iPhones.
Apple has made protecting the environment a higher priority since Tim Cook replaced the late Steve Jobs as the company's CEO four years ago.
"Climate change is one of the great challenges of our time, and the time for action is now," Cook said in a statement. "The transition to a new green economy requires innovation, ambition and purpose."
Apple just completed projects in China that generate 40 megawatts of solar energy to cover the power required by its 24 stores and 19 offices in the country. All of Apple's data centers, offices and stores in the U.S. already have been running on renewable energy.
"When you look at all the air pollution in China, all the manufacturing that is done there has a lot to do with it, so this is a significant step in the right direction," said Gary Cook, a senior analyst for Greenpeace, a group devoted to protecting the environment.
Apple also has a financial motivation to help make China a better place to live. The greater China region is Apple's second biggest market behind the U.S. Tim Cook has made it clear that he wants the company to make even more progress as rising incomes enable more of China's population to buy smart phones and other gadgets.
Apple can easily afford to go green. The company had $203 billion in cash at the end of June. This story has been reflected to correct that Apple and its suppliers haven't set a timetable for producing the 2.2 gigawatts of renewable energy in China.
46. The commitment announced Wednesday shows that ______.
47. It is estimated that with Apple's new commitment, ______.
48. Which of the following statements is TRUE?
49. What is Gary Cook's attitude towards Apple's commitment?
50. Where is this passage probably taken from?
“Mom, I have cancer.”These four words catapulted my son and me on a journey that lasted two years. On that day I felt a wave of paralyzing fear.
Scott was the oldest of my four children. He was 33 years old and a successful assistant principal at SamRayburn Hifht School in Pasadena, Texas. He and his wife Carolyn were busy raising four active children. Scott was 6”2’, weighed 200 pounds and had never been sick a day in his life.
A few month earlier a mole（痣） on his neck had changed color. “Dr.Warner called,” Scott said that spring morning. “It’s melanoma.（黑素瘤）” I tried to comfort him, naming all the people I knew who had survived skin cancer. Yet, I felt small tentacles of fear begin to wrap around my chest.
Our next stop was MDAnderson, the famous cancer hospital in Houston. Scott had surgery at the end of May and was scheduled for radiation treatments over the summmer recess. “There is an 80 percent chance it won’t reoccur,” the doctors said. At the end of summer, all his tests came back negative and Scott was back at school in the fall. However, in December, Scott discovered a lump on his neck. It was examined and the result came back “malignant.（恶性的）” We now realized that Scott fell into the 20 percent category. I could feel the tentacles tightening around my chest. He entered the hospital for an aggressive treatment, a combination of interferon and interleukin.
After five months of treatment, he had radical surgery on his neck. The test results were encourging, only three of the 33 lymph nodes（淋巴结） removed were malignant. We were very hopeful.
For the next six months, Scott’s follow-up visits went well. Then in October, X-ray revealed a spot on his lung. The spot was removed during surgery and the doctors tried to be optimistic. It was a daily battle to control the fear and panic each setback brought.
In January, he was diagnosed as having had a “disease explosion.” The cancer had spread to his lungs, spine and liver and he was given three to six months to live. There were times during this period when I felt like I was having a heart attack. The bands constricting my chest made breathing difficult.
When you watch your child battle cancer, you experience a roller coaster of emotions. There are moments of hope and optimism but a bad test result or even an unusual pain can bring on dread and panic.
Scott was readmitted to the hospital for one last try with chemotherapy. He died, quite suddenly, just six weeks after his last diagnosis. I was completely destroyed. I had counted on those last few months.
The next morning I was busy notifying people and making funeral arrangements. I remember having this nagging feeling that something was physically wrong with me. It took a moment to realize that the crushing sensation in my chest was gone. The thing every parent fears the most had happened. My son was gone. Of course, the fear had been replaced by unbearable sorrow.
After you lose a child, it is so difficult to go on. The most minimal tasks, combing your hair or taking a shower, becoming monumental. For months I just sat and stared into space. That spring, the trees began to bloom; flowers began to pop up in my garden. Friendswood was coming back to life but I was dead inside.
During those last weeks, Scott and I often spoke about life and death. Fragments of those conversations kept playing over and over in my mind.
“Don’t let this ruin your life, Mom.”
“Make sure Dad remodels his workshop.”
“Please, take care of my family.”
I remember wishing I could have just one more conversation with him. I knew what I would say, but what would Scott say? “I know how much you love me, Mom. So just sit on the couch and cry.” No, I knew him better than that. Scott loved life and knew how precious it is. I could almost hear his voice saying, “Get up Mom, Get on with your life. It’s too valuable to waste.”
That was the day I began to move forward. I signed up for a cake decorating class. Soon I was making cakes for holidays and birthdays. My daughter-in-law told me about a writing class in Houston. I hadn’t written in years, but since I was retired I decided it be time to start again. The local college advertised a Life Story Writing class that I joined. There I met women who had also lost their children. The Poet Laureate of Texas was scheduled to speak at our local Barnes and Noble. I attended and joined our local poetry society. I never dreamed that writing essays and poems about Scott could be so therapeutic. Several of those poems have ever been published. In addition, each group brought more and more people into my life..
I don’t believe you ever recover from the loss of a child. Scott is in my heart and mind every day. However, I do believe you can survive.
Scott fought so bravery to live and he never gave up. He taught me that life is a gift that should be cherished, not wasted. It has taken years to become the person I am today. The journey has been a difficult , painful process but certainly worth the effort and I know that my son would be proud.
51. What might be the best title of the passage ?
52. What does the underlined sentence “ The bands constricting my chest made breathing difficult” probably imply?
53. Which of the following statements best shows the author’s feeling about Scott’s death?
54. From Scott and his mother’s conversation, we can know that Scott is ________.
55. The author intends to tell us that___________.
Lost in the Post
How would you feel if the letter you penned carefully and posted to your favorite star ended up in the recycling bin? That's where unopened fan mail sent to singer Taylor Swift was found in Nashville. ___ __
Swift’s management said it was an accident, but dealing with piles of letters is a burden for most public figures. According to the BBC reporter Jon Kelly, at the height of his fame, Johnny Depp was said to receive up to 10,000 letters a week. ___ ___
The dawn of the digital age in which public figures with a Twitter account can be messaged directly has made the process easier. The White House says it deals with 20,000 messages addressed to President Barack Obama each day.
Some celebrities don’t want letters. In 2008, Beatles drummer Ringo Starr said that he would throw them out because he was too busy. __ ___ Robert Pattinson, star of the Twilight films, claims that he reads tonnes and tonnes of letters from fans, which takes up almost all his free time.
Many artists, however, outsource(外包) the task of opening, reading and replying. Sylvia “Spanky” Taylor, 58, has run a service in California that does just that since 1987. __ _ Most letters are simply declarations of affection and admiration, she says. A few ask for money. A small number contain threats which require her to contact the celebrity’s security team and law enforcement.
The biggest problem for Taylor is working out how to deal with the correspondence(通信). Presents such as soft toys are sent to local hospitals, and most of the letters just get shredded and recycled.
__ __ For some, this is enough, according to Lynn Zubernis, an expert at West Chester University. She says that the relationship between fan and celebrity may exist only in the mind of the former but it comes from a deeply-rooted human need for community.
If I were to ask you who have changed your life, a person would pop into your head. More than likely that person is a teacher, friend, parent, or relative. The you think about it, the number of people who have changed your life increases. Yet, the number of people is still small, every one （leave） their fingerprints on your life.
If you were to ask me, my answer would be from the usual. Every person I have met, loved, hated, talked to, known, or learned from has changed my life. Not every person has changed it in a positive way though; some have left wounds, while others have left hope.
You life can （influence） by anyone. It doesn't matter whether you have known them forever you have just met. Sometimes it is the little things that change our lives. When someone you don't know holds the door open for you, or helps you pick up your （belong） from the floor, just for those split seconds the world is a little nicer. The people around you can turn bad days into good ones, and good days into bad ones. Everyone around you affects your life you realize it.
You may think everything I have written is wrong, but I disagree. Some people simply make bigger impacts than others. __, most changes are small, only changing your path the smallest fraction （小部分） of an inch. Like everything else, those small fractions of an inch began to add up over time. Then before you know it the path b your feet is different from before.
As for me, I'd like to silently thank those people around me _ make me what I am, changing my life every day.
letters or mails from the fans.
A farmer grew some vegetables in his garden. One day his wife was ill and he had no money. He had to sell some cabbages and carrots in the market. The next morning he took two baskets of vegetables to town. But it was raining heavily that afternoon and there were few people in the street. When his vegetables were sold out, it was dark. He bought some medicine and hurried to his village.
On his way home he saw a person lying on the snow. He placed his baskets on the ground and was going to help the person to stand up. At that time, he found it was a dead man and there was much blood on his body. He was so afraid that he ran away quickly, without taking the baskets with him.
The next afternoon the farmer was sent to the police station. Having shown the baskets, an officer asked, “Are these yours?”
“Yes, sir.” the farmer answered timidly(胆怯地).
“Have you killed the man?”
“No, no, sir.” the farmer said in a hurry.
“When did you see the dead man?”
“At about seven last night.”
“Did you see who killed the man?”
The officer brought out a knife and asked, “Have you seen it yet?”
The officer became angry and told the policemen to beat(打) him up and sent him into prison. the officer wanted to trap(设陷阱) the farmer into the confession(供认), but the farmer didn’t admit he was the murderer(谋杀犯).
The officer was so angry that he asked the policeman to beat him up again.
The farmer was lucky .A few days later,