- 2015年高考权威预测卷 英语 (上海卷)
1.Directions: After reading the passages below, fill in the blanks to make the passages coherent and grammatically correct. For the blanks with a given word, fill in each blank with the proper form of the given word; for the other blanks, use one word that best fits each blank.
Don't Take the Fun Out of Youth Sports
When I joined a private football league a few years ago, the sport meant everything to me. My coach said I had lots of potential, and I became captain of my team. That was before all the fun （1）_______（take） out of playing.
At first, everyone on the team got equal playing time. Then the team moved up to the top division after winning all its games, and the pressure started. Some parents, who （2）_____（pay） the coach extra （3）_____return for their daughters' private one-on-one training, got angry when she didn't give them more playing time. The coach was replaced. The new coach, however, took all the fun out of the game: All we did during practice was run. We ran so much that, afterwards, we had trouble （4） ______（breathe）.Younger people shouldn't be doing exercises （5）______ （design） for 18-year-olds.
I was thin before I started football, but as a member of this team I wouldn't eat much, because I thought to （6） _____ that I was afraid of being too full to run. Finally, I ended up leaving the football team. Four other girls did the same, two of （7）______stopped playing football completely.
That's sad because they had so much potential. They were just burned-out with all the pressure they felt from the coach or their parents.
I continued playing football at school and rediscovered my love for it. I joined a private team and the coach told me I needed to relax because I looked nervous. After I calmed down, I played better. When you enjoy something, it is a lot （8）______（easy） to do it well.
9.Directions: Translate the following sentences into English, using the words given in the brackets.
5. 无论遇到什么困难， 只要你坚持不懈地努力，你所有的梦想都会实现。（Whatever）
8.Directions: Read the passage carefully. Then answer the questions or complete the statements in the fewest possible words.
The paper is written in an attempt to discuss what the creative process is .Though much theory has accumulated ,little is really known about the power that lies at the bottom of poetic creation. It is true that great poets and artists produce beauty by employing all the powers of personality and by combing emotions, reason, and intuitions（直觉）. But what is the magical synthesis（合成） that joins and arranges these complex parts into poetic unity?
John L.Lowes, in his justly famous” The Road to Xanadu,” developed one of the earliest and still generally acceptable answers to this interesting question. Imaginative creation. He concludes, is a complex process in which the conscious and unconscious minds jointly operate. “there is ….the deep well with its chaos（杂乱） of accidently mixing images ,but there is likewise the vision which sees shining in and through the chaos of the potential lines of form , and with the vision, the controlling will ,which gives to that potential beauty actuality.”
The deep well is the unconscious mind that is peopled with the facts, ideas , feelings of the conscious activity. The imaginative vision, an unconscious activity, shines through the land of chaos, of lights and shadows , silently seeking pattern and form. Finally, the conscious mind again, through will , captures and embodies the idea in the final work of art. In this way is unity born out of chaos.
Though there can be no absolute certainty, there is general agreement that the periods in the development of a creative work parallel （与….相似）， to some extent ,Lowes’s theory of well , vision , form and will. There are at least three stages in the creative process: preparation, inspiration, work.
In a sense, the period of preparation is all of the writer’s life. It is the deep well. It is especially a period of concentration which gives the unconscious mind an opportunity to communicate with the conscious mind. When remembrance of things past reaches the conscious level of the writer’s mind, he is ready to go on with the process. Part of this preparation involves learning a medium---learning a language, learning how to write, learning literary forms. It is important to note here that form cannot be imposed upon the idea. Evidence, though not enough, shows that the idea gives birth to the form that can best convey it. It is the vision, according to Lowes, that sees shining in and through the chaos of the potential lines of form.
（Answer the questions or complete the statements in no more than TEN words）
（1）John L. Lowes has provided an acceptable answer to the question of ______________________.
（2）_________________________are the four elements of John L. Lowes’ theory.
（3）How does the preparation stage contribute to the development of a creative work?
（4）According to the passage, what is the relationship between the idea and form.
7.Directions: Read the following three passages. Each passage is followed by several questions or unfinished statements. For each of them there are four choices marked A, B, C and D. Choose the one that fits best according to the information given in the passage you have just read.
For age the word has been going around that the dog is the man’s best friend. I agree. A dog can be hardly as a night watchman around the house, as a pointer on a hunting trip, as a guardian and playmate for the children. But I think that having a dog for a pet is so expensive and annoying that I can do without such a friend.
Providing for the dog’s needs is so expensive that the animals should be an income tax deduction（扣除）. There’s the medical bill for shots to keep the animal healthy. Unless it’s kept in the house 24 hours a day, a female must be given “preventive maintenance” a ten-to twenty-dollar investment. Otherwise, before you know it , you’ll have more “income tax deductions” in your family. And dogs have to eat. Don’t think you can buy a case of Ken-L-Ration and be done with it. A dog can be as particular about food as a French expert. To feed even a Chihuahua, a very small Mexican dog, you’ll spend three to five dollars a week. If you own a big, you need a large dog-house. They’re expensive. A carpenter will build a luxurious model for about seventy-five dollars. For about thirty dollars’ worth of materials, a weekend’s work, and a smashed thumb, you can build a simple one yourself. And these are only the major costs.
A dog is so annoying that no one in his right mind would want to own one. Consider the dog owner blessed with a dog that fetches-slippers, rubber toys, newspapers. Have you eased your bare feet into slippers bitten by dogs, seen a living room destroyed by a toy boxer, tried to read a newspaper chewed to wet pieces by an obedient Boston bull? And dogs make noise. Some huge dogs bark all night. But you aren’t the only one to endure sleepless nights; your neighbors let you know they didn’t sleep either. Policemen are frequent visitors to dog owners’ homes. They inquire about holes reported dug in neighbors’ flower beds, prize cats injured and bleeding, and pet chickens and ducks sent to their reward. Suspect: your dog! You deny everything, of course. Rex, you assure the officers, was asleep by the door. But you secretly suspect him, because you don’t really know where Pex was all week. And you remember wondering why feathers were floating in his water bowl yesterday. Dogs are annoying. Neither a fire-breathing mother-in-law nor a talkative wife prove more annoying to man than a dog.
Dog lovers will, of course, claim my argument one-sides, even exaggerated. They might consider me as cruel as the Russians, who possibly attempting to solve their own canine crisis--shot Fido into orbit. But the fact remains, if our best friends caused us the expense and annoyance our dog does, we’d soon encouraged them to become astronauts.
（1）Which statement is NOT true about the dog as man’s best friend?
A. A dog will help to watch people.
B. A dog will guard your house at night.
C. A dog will play with your children.
D. A dog will serve as a guide for the hunters.
（2）In paragraph2, “preventive maintenance” means a measure to_____.
A. keep the dog in the house the whole day
B. invest ten to twenty dollars in female pregnant
C. prevent a female dog from becoming pregnant
D. provide for the food that dogs eat
（3）Policemen frequently visit dog owners’ homes because______.
A. the police station was destroyed by dogs
B. neighbor’s domestics pets were killed or injured.’
C. they want to ask about neighbor’s flowers
D. they can’t stand sleepless nights any more
（4）From the last two paragraphs, we can learn that______.
A. a dog is not as annoying as a fire-breathing mother-in-law
B.it is more difficult for man to cope with a talkative wife than with a dog
C. dog lovers prove to be as cruel as the Russians in the argument
D. a dog is a troublemaker that causes its owner the most annoyance.
6.Directions: Read the following three passages. Each passage is followed by several questions or unfinished statements. For each of them there are four choices marked A, B, C and D. Choose the one that fits best according to the information given in the passage you have just read.
The Box-Office Numbers
The Motion Picture Association of American (MPAA)* has produced a 24-page report that summarizes box-office data, primarily using bold charts and graphs. To access the entire report, “2009 U.S. Theatrical Market Statistics,” going to http://www.mpaa.org/2009-US-Report.pdf.
Highlights of the report include
· In 2005, the U.S. Movie industry’sbox-office revenues(收入)totaled ＄25.2 billion, with just over one-third of that, ＄9.49 billion, comingfrom domestic audiences and the restfrom international audience. Both domestic and foreign ticket sales increasedfrom 2008, but the foreign revenues grew more.
· For the first time in 2009, a filmearned more than ＄400 million domestically (Pirates of the Caribbean:Dead Man’s Chest). Films earning between ＄50 and ＄99 million grew in number,going from 36 films in 2008 to 45 films in 2009. Overall, films earning morethan ＄50 million went from 56 films in 2008 to 63 in 2009.
· Number of new films released in the United States:
1998 420 films
2005 449 films
2008 535 films
2009 599 films
· Film loves keeping going to the movies, even when they have alternative technology at home. Those who own or have access to four or more other technologies(DVD player, satellite TV, etc.) went to a theater to see a movie about 10 times per year. Those who owned fewer than four alternative technologies went to the movies only seven times per year.
· U.S. Movies admissions were at all-time high in 2009, with nearly 1.5 billion tickets sold.
*MPAA is a nonprofit organization formed by six large studios to work on behalf of the film industry. On its Web site[http://www.mpaa.org], MPAA describes itself as “The Voice and Advocate of the American Motion Picture, Home Video and Television Industries.”
（1）The Motion Picture Association of America aims to_______
A. Conclude box-office data and give reports
B. make full use of bold charts and graphs
C. download relative reports from the websites
D. control U.S. Theatrical Market Statistics
（2）Which of the following is true about the U.S. Movie industry’s box-office revenues?
A. The revenues coming from international audiences totaled $8.41 billion in 2005.
B. The revenues produces from domestic audiences added up to $25.82 billion in 2009.
C. The foreign revenues grew more compared with domestic ticket sales from 2008.
D. A film firstly made more than $400 million both at home and abroad in 2009.
（3）Highlights of the report include the following aspects except______
A. the U.S. movie industry’s box-office revenues
B. the numbers of the newly released U.S. Movies
C. the status of film lovers’ going to the cinemas
D. the U.S. Movie admission to six large studios
（4）Why does MPAA describe itself as “The Voice and Advocate of the American Motion Picture, Home Video and Television Industries”?
A. Because MPAA is an organization with no intention to earn money.
B. Because MPAA is made up of all the large studios throughout America.
C. Because MPAA devotes itself to working standing for the film industry.
D. Because MPAA runs a world-wide web site reflecting the Motion Picture.
5.Directions: Read the following three passages. Each passage is followed by several questions or unfinished statements. For each of them there are four choices marked A, B, C and D. Choose the one that fits best according to the information given in the passage you have just read.
In 1801, Giuseppe Piazzi discovered a new object in the sky. He thought it was an undiscovered comet. After further observation, he realized that it behaved more like a small planet than a comet. Piazzi named it Ceres after the Sicillian goddess of grain. Ceres remains the largest known asteroids（小行星）in the sky. It means almost 600 miles（1,000 km） in diameter. By the end of the nineteenth century, several hundred other asteroids had been identified.
Tens of thousands of asteroids have since been discovered, with thousands more found each year. Asteroids are masses of rock and metal that orbit（绕轨道而行）the sun between Mars and Jupiter. They did not form into planets because the perturbations of Jupiter kept them moving too fast to join together. The total mass of all of the asteroids is less than the size of Earth’s moon.
Some of the asteroids move in orbits outside the zone between Mars and Jupiter. Asteroids that come relatively close to Earth are known as near-Earth asteroids（NEAs）. Scientists estimate that about 1,000 of these asteroids are 0.6 miles（1km） in diameter. An asteroid of this colliding（碰撞）with Earth would be disastrous.
Scientists have found two sites where giant asteroids struck Earth millions of years ago. One asteroid hit Antarctica about 250 million years ago. Another asteroid struck Mexico’s Yucantan Peninsula around 65 million years ago, leaving a hole 112 miles（180km） wide and 1,000 yards （915m） deep. One theory blames the extinction of the dinosaurs on this asteroids’s collision with Earth and the climate change that resulted from its impact.
Occasionally, small asteroids strike Earth. These cause little damage. Major collision, such as the one that may have killed the dinosaurs, occur rarely--perhaps only once every 100 million years.
Although the chance of an asteroid striking the planet anytime soon is small, scientists continue to study the orbits of asteroids in the sky. They pay particularly close attention to the asteroids whose paths are close to Earth, and have even landed a spacecraft on an NEA named Eros. Their work helps them learn about the formation of the solar system. It may even help them discover ways to avoid an asteroid disaster in the future.
（1）Which of the following statement is NOT true about asteroids?
A. Asteroids are composed of rock and metal.
B. Asteroids orbit the sun between Mars and Jupiter.
C. Large near-Earth asteroids are sure to strike Earth.
D. A large asteroid colliding with Earth would cause a disaster.
（2）The word “perturbations”（paragraph 2） is closest in meaning to “ ”.
A. Formation of rocks
B. Disturbance of motion
C. Estimation of scientists
D. Influences of size
（3）What scientists have found implies that
A. two sites of Earth hit giant asteroids millions of years ago
B. Antarctica was once struck by an asteroid millions of years ago
C. one asteroid left a huge hole in Mexico 250 million years ago
D. the extinction of dinosaurs resulted in asteroid’s collision with Earth
（4）Which of the following events happened third according to the passage?
A. Giuseppe Piazzi discovered a new object and name it Ceres.
B. Scientists had a spacecraft land on Eros to learn more about the solar system.
C. Asteroids orbiting the sun failed to form into planets.
D. Several hundred asteroids had been identified by the end of the nineteenth century.
4.Directions: Directions: For each blank in the following passage there are four words or phrases marked A,B,C and D. Fill in each blank with the word or phrase that best fits the context.
When you say that someone has a good memory, what exactly do you mean? Are you saying that the person has fast recall or that he or she ___（1）___ information quickly? Or maybe you just mean that the person remembers a lot about her or his childhood. The truth is that it is ___（2）__ to say exactly what memory is. Even scientists who have been studying memory for decades say they are still trying to ___（3）___ exactly what it is. We do know that a particular memory is not just one thing stored somewhere in the brain. ___（4）__, a memory is made up of bits and pieces of information stored all over the brain. Perhaps the best way to ___（5）___ memory is to say that it is a process—a process of recording, storing, and getting back information. Practice and repetition can help to ___（6）___ the pieces that make up our memory of that information.
Memory can be ___（7）___ affected by a number of things. ___（8）___ nutrition can affect a person’s ability to store information. Excessive alcohol use can also weaken memory and cause permanent ___（9）___ to the brain over the long term. A vision or hearing problem may affect a person’s ability to notice certain things, thus making it ___（10）___ to register information in the brain.
When people talk about memory, they often ___（11）___ short-term memory and long-term memory. If you want to call a store or an office that you don’t call often, you look in the telephone book for the number. You dial the number, and then you forget it! You use your short-term memory to remember the number. Your short-term memory lasts about 30 seconds, or half a minute. ___（12）___, you don’t need to look in the telephone book for your best friend’s number, because you already know it. This number is in your long-term memory, which ___（13）___ information about things you have learned and experienced through the years.
Why do you forget things sometimes? The major reason for forgetting something is that you did not learn it well enough ___（14）___. For example, if you meet some new people and right away forget their names, it is because you did not ___（15）___ the names at the first few seconds when you heard them.
（1） A. collects B. processes C. publishes D. absorbs
（2）A. necessary B. important C. difficult D. convenient
（3） A. figure out B. take out C. put out D. give out
（4）A. After all B. Instead C. By contrast D. Besides
（5）A. recall B. refresh C. describe D. decrease
（6） A. lose B. organize C. identify D. strengthen
（7）A. positively B. negatively C. actively D. directly
（8） A. Poor B. Adequate C. Special D. Various
（9） A. benefit B. offence C. effect D. damage
（10） A. easier B. more impressive C. harder D. more convenient
（11） A. refer to B. apply for C. come across D. break down
（12） A. Furthermore B. However C. Consequently D. Otherwise
（13）A. leaks B. transmits C. checks D. stores
（14） A. in the middle B. at the end C. in the beginning D. ahead of time
（15） A. restore B. record C. replace D. respond
3.Directions: Complete the following passage by using the words in the box. Each word can only be used once. Note that there is one word more than you need.
Most individuals experience some form of test anxiety when they take an important examination. This anxiety can （1） itself in physical symptoms like nausea or sweaty palms, or in emotional symptoms like panic and irritability. Often, individuals will become nervous long before the exam date because they feel （2） by the amount of material they must master. The first step in （3） this anxiety is realizing that test anxiety is a natural reaction, and that it can be （4） . In order to regain control over anxiety, one should break the exam （5） into smaller sections. It will seem much easier to master a series of small subjects than to handle a huge subject all at once.
Test-takers should make a study schedule weeks or months ahead of the exam, and give themselves a small amount to learn each period. When the exam day （6） arrives, anxiety will be reduced by the feeling of preparedness. Apart from that, anxiety can be lessened in a few easy ways. First, avoid having any excessively stimulating foods, such as those （7） caffeine or sugar, on the day of the exam. Getting a good night's sleep and a little bit of exercise will （8） one's brain and allow for easy （9） of the learned material. During the exam, breathe deeply and sit in a comfortable position. On exams where this is possible, many people find comfort in going through and answering all of the easy questions before （10） the more difficult ones.
2.Directions: After reading the passages below, fill in the blanks to make the passages coherent and grammatically correct. For the blanks with a given word, fill in each blank with the proper form of the given word; for the other blanks, use one word that best fits each blank.
How to Be a Winner
Steven Redgrave---Winner of 5 Olympic Gold Medals
"In 2012 I was found to have developed lung disease. （1）______ （believe） my career was over, I felt extremely low. Then one of the specialists said there was no reason why I should stop training and competing. That was it----the encouragement I needed. I could still be a winner （2） ______ _______ _______I believed in myself. I am not saying that it isn't difficult sometimes. But I wanted to prove to myself that hard （3） ______the condition was, I wasn't finished yet. Nothing is to stand in my way."
Karen Pickering-Swimming World Champion
"I swim 4 hours a day, 6 days a week. I manage that sort of workload by putting it on top of my diary. This is the key to success − you （4） ____ not bear following a career in any field without being well-organized. List （5） _____ you believe you can achieve. Trust yourself, write down your goals for the day, however small they are, and you'll be a step closer to achieving them."
Kirsten Best-Poet &Writer
"When things are getting hard, a voice inside my head tells me I can't achieve something. Then, there are other influencing factors, such as family or hobbies. The key is to concentrate, （6） _____ helps a lot to repeat words such as ‘ calm’, ‘peace’ or ‘focus’, either out loud or silently in my mind when I feel tense. It makes me （7）_______（ feel） more in control and increases my confidence. This is a habit that can become second nature quite easily and is （8）______powerful psychological tool."
10.Directions: Write an English composition in 120-150 words according to the instructions given below in Chinese.