• 2014年高考真题 文综 (全国III卷)
简答题(综合题) 本大题共100分。简答应写出文字说明、证明过程或演算步骤。
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1.

Bagsof Love

 Last year, I was assigned to work at an office near my mother’s house,so I stayed with her for a month. During that time, I helped out with thehousework and contributed to the groceries.

 After less than a week, I started noticing that the groceries wererunning out pretty quickly — we were always suddenly out of something. (25)_______(wonder) howmy mum could consume them so quickly, I began observing her daily routine fortwo weeks. To my surprise, I found that she would pack a paper bag full ofcanned goods and head out every morning at about nine. Eventually, I decided tofollow her and (26)_______ happened truly amazed me. She was taking the food tothe refugee camp, in (27)______ she distributed it to children.

  Iasked around and found out that my mum was very well known in the area. Thekids were very friendly with her and even looked up to her as if she were theirown mother. Then it hit me —shy would she mot want to tell me about what she (28)_____(do)? Wasshe worried about how I would react or that I would stop (29)_____(buy) thegroceries if I found out?

 When she got home, I told her about my discovery. (30)_____ she couldreact, I gave her a big hug and told her she didn’t need to keep it a secret(31)______ me. She told me that some of the children lived with an older ladyin a shelter while others slept on the streets. For years, my mum has beenhelping out by giving them whatever food she could spare. I was so impressed by(32)_____ selfless she was. 学.科网

(B)

Stress:Good or Bad?

 Stress used to be an almost unknown word, but now that we are used totalking about it, I have found that people are beginning to get stressed aboutbeing stressed.

  Inrecent years, stress(33)______(regard) as a cause of a whole range of medicalproblems, from high blood pressure to mental illness. But like so many otherthings, it is only too much stress(34)______ does you harm. It is time youconsidered that if there were no stress in your life, you would achieve alittle. If you are stuck at home with no stress, then your level of performancewill be low. Up to a certain point, the more stress you are under, the(35)_____(good) your performance will be. Beyond a certain point, though ,further stress will only lead to exhaustion, illness and finally a breakdown.You can tell when you are over the top and on the downward slope, by askingyourself (36)_______ number of questions. Do you, for instance, feel that too muchis being expected of (37)______, and yet find it impossible to say no? Do youfind yourself getting impatient of (38) _____(annoy) with people overunimportant things?... If the answer to all those questions is yes, you hadbetter(39)______(control ) your stress, as you probably are under more stressthan is good for you.

  Tosome extent you can control the amount of stress in your life. Doctors haveworked out a chart showing how much stress is involved in various events.Getting married is 50, pregnancy 40, moving house 20, Christmas 12,etc. If thetotal stress in your life is over 150, you are twice as likely (40)_______ (get)ill.

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2.

Section B

   Directions: Complete the following passage byusing the words in the box. Each word can only be used once. Note that there isone word more than you need.

Golden Rules of Good Design

  What makes good design? Overthe years, designers and artists have been trying to   41         the essentials of good design. They have foundthat some sayings can help people understand the ideas of good design. Thereare four as follows.

Less is more. This saying is associated with the German-bornarchitect Mies van der Rohe. In his Modernist view, beauty lies in simplicityand elegance, and the aim of the designer is to create solutions to problemsthrough the most efficient means. Design should avoid unnecessary   42 

  More is not a bore. The American-born architect Robert Venturi concludedthat if simplicity is done badly, the result is   43  design.Post-Modernist designers began to   44   with decoration and color again. Productdesign was heavily influenced by this view and can be seen in kitchen    45  such as ovens and kettles.

   Fitnessfor purpose. Successful product design takes into consideration a product’sfunction, purpose, shape, form, color, and so on. The most important result forthe user is that the product does what is   46   .For example, think of a(n)   47   desk lamp. It needs to be constructed frommaterials that will stand the heat of the lamp and regular adjustments by theuser. It also needs to be stable. Most importantly, it needs to    48   lightwhere it is needed.

   Fromfollows emotion. This phrase is associated with the German designer HartmutEsslinger. He believes design must take into   49   the sensory side of our nature—sight, smell, touch and taste. Theseare as important as rational(理性的). When choosing everydayproducts such as toothpaste, we appreciate a cool-looking device that allows usto easily    50   thetoothpaste onto our brush.

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3.

III. Reading Comprehension

Section A

   Directions: For each blank in the following passage there are four words orphrases marked A, B, C and D. Fill in each blank with the word or phrase thatbest fits the context.

In the 1960s, Douglas McGregor, one of the key thinkers in the artof management, developed the mow famous Theory X and Theory Y. Theory X is theidea that people instinctively   51   work and will do anything to avoid it. TheoryY is the view that everyone has the potential to find satisfaction in work.

In any case,despite so much evidence to the   52  ,many managers still agree to Theory X. They believe,   53   , that their employees need constantsupervision if they are to work effectively, or that decisions must be imposedfrom   54   without consultation. This, of course, makesfor authoritarian (专制的) managers.

Differentcultures have different ways of   55   people. Unlike authoritarian management, some cultures, particularly in Asia, are wellknown for the consultative nature of decision-making—all members of the department orwork group are asked to   56   tothis process. This is management by the collective opinion. Many westerncompanies have tried to imitate such Asian ways of doing things, which arebased on general   57  . Some experts say that women will becomemore effective managers than men because they have the power to reach commongoals in a way that traditional   58   managers cannot.

A recent trendhas been to encourage employees to use their own initiative, to make decisionson their own without   59   managers first. This empowerment (授权) has been part of the trend towards downsizing:   60   the number of management layers in companies.After de-layering in this way, a company may be   61   with just a top level of senior managers,front-line managers and employees with direct contact with the public.Empowerment takes the idea of delegation (委托) much further than has   62   been the case. Empowerment and delegation meannew forms of management control to   63   that the overall business plan is beingfollowed, and that operations become more profitable under the new organization,rather than less.

Another trendis off-site or   64   management, where teams of people linked bye-mail and the Internet work on projects from their own houses. Projectmanagers evaluate the   65   

of the team members in terms of what theyproduce for projects, rather than the amount of time they spend on them.

51. A. desire                 B. seek                         C.lose                         D. dislike  

52. A. contrary                     B. expectation               C.degree                      D.extreme 

53. A. vice versa           B. for example                     C.however                   D. otherwise

54. A. outside               B. inside                       C.below                      D. above

55. A. replacing            B. assessing                  C.managing                 D.encouraging 

56. A. refer                   B. contribute                 C. object                      D. apply

57. A. agreement           B. practice                    C.election                    D. impression

58. A. bossy                  B. experienced                     C.western                    D. male 

59. A. asking                B. training                    C.warning                   D. firing

60. A. doubling             B. maintaining                     C.reducing                   D. estimating

61. A. honoured            B. left                          C.crowded                   D. compared

62. A. economically       B. traditionally              C.inadequately             D. occasionally

63. A. deny                   B.admit                       C. assume                     D. ensure

64. A. virtual                B. ineffective                C.day-to-day                D. on-the-scene

65. A. opinion               B. risk                          C.performance             D. attractiveness

分值: 26分 查看题目解析 >
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4.

Section B

Direction:Read the following three passages. Eachpassage is followed by several questions or unfinished sattments. For each ofthem there are four choices markedA, B, C and D. Choose the one that fits bestaccording to the information given in the passage you have just read.

(A)

   One early morning, I went into the living roomto find my mother reading a thick book called Best Loved Poems to Read Again and Again. My interest was arousedonly by the fact that the word “Poems” appeared in big, hot pink letters.

  “Isit good?” I asked her.

  “Yeah,”she answered. “There’s one I really like and you’ll like it, too.” I leanedforward.

  “‘Patty Poem,’” she read the title. Who is Patty?I wondered. The poem began:

A terrible sorrow washed over me. WhoeverPatty was, she was a mean girl. Then, the shock.

  “It’syou, honey,” My mother said sadly.

  Tomy mother, the poem revealed a parent’s affection when her child grows up andleaves. To me, the “she” in the poem was horror. It was my mama who would besad. It was so terrible I burst out crying.

  “What’swrong?” my mother asked.

  “OhMama,” I cried. “I don’t want to grow up ever!”

  Shesmiled. “Honey, it’s okay. You’re not growing up anytime soon. And when you do,I’ll still love you, okay?”

  “Okay,”I was still weeping. My panic has gone. But I could not help thinking aboutthat silly poem. After what seemed like a safe amount of time, I read the poemagain and was confused. It all fit so well together, like a puzzle. Thelanguage was simple, so simple I could plainly understand its meaning, yet itwas still beautiful. I was now fascinated by the idea of poetry, words that hadthe power to make or break a person’s world.

  Ihave since fallen in love with other poems, but “Patty Poem” remains my poem.After all, “Patty Poem” gave me my love for poetry not because it was the poemthat lifted my spirits, but because it was the one that hurt me the most.

66. Why was the writer attracted by thebook Best Loved Poems to Read Again andAgain?

   A.It was a thick enough book.

   B.Something on its cover caught her eye.

   C.Her mother was reading it with interest.

   D.It has a meaningful title.

67. After her mother read the poem to her,the writer felt ______ at first.

   A.sad       B. excited      C. horrified      D. confused

68. The writer’s mother liked to read “PattyPoem” probably because______.

   A.it reflected her own childhood

   B.it was written in simple language

  C.it was composed by a famous poet

  D.it gave her a hint of what would happen

69. It can be concluded from the passagethat“Patty Poem”leads the writer to _______.

  A.discover the power of poetry

  B.recognize her love for puzzles

  C.find her eagerness to grow up

  D.experience great homesickness

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5.

(B)

   Isthere link between humans and climate change or not? This question was firststudied in the early 1900s. Since then, many scientists have thought that ouractions do make a difference. In 1997, the Kyoto Protocol explained our role inthe Earth’s changing atmosphere and set international limits for gas emissions(排放) from 2008 to 2012. Some countries have decided to continue thesereductions until 2020. More recently, the Paris Agreement, stuck by nearly 200countries, also aims to limit global warming. But just now how much warmer itwill get depends on how deeply countries cut carbon emissions.

  3.5℃

This is how much temperatures would rise by 2100 evenif nations live up to the initial Paris promises to reduce carbon emissions;this rise could still put coastal cities under water and drive over half of allspecies to extinction.

2℃

To meet this minimum goal, the Agreementrequires countries to tighten emissions targets every five years. Even thisincrease could sink some islands, worse drought(干旱) and drive a decline of up to athird in the number of species.

  1.5℃

This is the most ambitious goal fortemperature rise set by the Paris Agreement, after a push by low-lying islandnations like Kiribati, which say limiting temperature rise to 1.5℃ couldsave them from sinking.

  0.8℃

This is how much temperatures have risensince the industrial age began, putting us 40% of the way to the 2℃ point.

0℃

The baseline here is average globaltemperature before the start of the industrial age.

70. It can be concluded from paragraph 1that _______.

A. the problem of global warming will havebeen quite solved by 2020

B. gas emissions have been effectivelyreduced in developed countries

C. the Paris Agreements is more influentialthan the Kyoto Protocol

D. humans have made continuous efforts toslow down global warming

71. If nations could only keep the initialpromises of the Paris Agreement, what would happen by the year 2100?

A. The human population would increase byone third.

B. Little over 50% of all species wouldstill exist.

C. Nations would not need to tighten theiremissions targets.

D. The Agreement’s minimum goal would notbe reached.

72. If those island nations not far abovesea level are to survive, the maximum temperature rise, since the start of theindustrial age, should be_______.

A. 0.8℃    B. 1.5℃

C. 2℃      D. 3.5℃

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6.

(C)

  Enough “meaningless drivel”.That’s the message from a group of members of the UK government who have beenexamining how social media firms like LinkedIn gather and use social mediadata.

  The House of Commons Science and Technology Committee’s report, releasedlast week, has blamed firms for making people sign up to long incomprehensiblelegal contracts and calls for an international standard or kitemark (认证标记) to identify sites that have clear terms and conditions.

  “The term and conditions statement that we all carelessly agree to is meaningless drivel to anyone,” saysAndrew Miller, the chair of the committee. Instead, he says, firms should providea plain-English version of their terms. The simplified version would be checkedby a third party and awarded a kitemark if it is an accurate reflection of theoriginal.

   Itis not yet clear who would administer the scheme, but the UK government islooking at introducing it on a voluntary basis. “we need to think through howwe make that work in practice,” says Miller.

  Would we pay any more attention to a kitemark? “I think if you went anddid the survey, people would like to think they would,” says Nigel Shadbolt atthe University of Southampton, UK, who studies open data. “We do know peopleworry a lot about the inappropriate use of their information.” But what wouldhappen in practice is another matter, he says.

 Other organisations such as banks ask customers to sign long contractsthey may not read or understand, but Miller believes social media requiresspecial attention because it is so new. “We still don’t know how significantthe long-term impact is going to be of unwise things that kids put on socialmedia that come back and bite them in 20 years’ time,” he says.

Shadbolt, who gave evidence to the committee, says the problem is that we don’t know how companies will use our data because their business models and uses of data are still evolving. Large collections of personal information have become valuable only recently, he says.

   Theshock and anger when a social media firm does something with data that peopledon’t expect, even if users have apparently permission, show that the currentsituation isn’t working. If properly administered, a kitemark on terms andconditions could help people know what exactly they are signing up to. Althoughthey would still have to actually read them.

73. What does the phrase “ meaninglessdrivel” in paragraphs 1 and 3 refer to?

A. Legal contracts that social media firmsmake people sign up to.

B. Warnings from the UK government againstunsafe websites.

C. Guidelines on how to use social mediawebsites properly.

D. Insignificant data collected by social mediafirms.

74. It can be inferred from the passagethat Nigel Shadbolt doubts whether _______.

A. social media firms would conduct asurvey on the kitemark scheme

B. people would pay as much attention to akitemark as they think

C. a kitemark scheme would be workable on anationwide scale

D. the kitemark would help companiesdevelop their business models

75. Andrew Miller thinks social media needsmore attention than banks mainly because _______.

A. their users consist largely of kidsunder 20 years old

B. the language in their contracts isusually harder to understand

C. the information they collected couldbecome more valuable in future

D. it remains unknown how users’ data willbe taken advantage of

76. The writer advises users of socialmedia to _______.

A. think carefully before posting anythingonto such websites

B. read the terms and conditions even ifthere is a kitemark

C. take no further action if they can finda kitemark

D. avoid providing too much personalinformation

77. Which of the following is the besttitle of the passage?

A. Say no to social media?

B. New security rules in operation?

C. Accept without reading?

D. Administration matters!

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7.

Section C

 Directions: Read the passage carefully. Then answer thequestions or complete the statements in the fewest possible words.

   Walking willbe banned on escalators as part of a trail designed ti reduce congestion(拥堵) at some of thecountry’s busiest stations.

   In the firstmove of its kind, all travelers will be forced to stand on both sides ofescalators on the London Underground as part of a plan to increase capacity(容量) at the height of the rushhour.

       A xix-month trialwill be introduced at Holborn station from mid-April, eliminating the rule ofstanding on the right and walking on the left. The move, imitating a similarstructure in Far eastern cities such as Hong Kong, is designed to increase thenumber of people using long escalators at the busiest times . it could beexpanded across the Tube network in coming years.

   According toLondon Underground, only 40 percent of travelers walk the full length of longescalators, leaving the majority at the bottom as they wait to get on to the “standing“side.

   A three-week trial at Holborn last year found thatthe number of people using escalators at any time of could be raised by almosta third. Peter McNaught, operations director at London Underground, said: “Itmay not seem right that you can go quicker by standing still, but ourexperiments at Holborn have proved that it can be true. This new six-monthtrial will help us find out if we can influence customers to stand on bothsides in the long term.”

   Holborn has one of the longest sets ofescalators on the Underground network at 23.4 high. Tube bosses claim thatcapacity was limited because so few people wanted to walk up—meaningonly one side was used at all times. Research has shown that it is moreeffective use of escalators over 18.5 to ban walking.

   The previous trial found that escalators atthe station normally carried 2,500 people between 8:30am and 9:30am on atypical day, rising to 3,250 during the researching period.

Inthe new trial, which will be launched from April 18, one of three “up”escalators will be standing only, with a second banning walking at peak times.A third will remain a mix of walking and standing.

(Note: Answering thequestions the questions or complete the statements in NO MORE THAN TEN WORDS.)

78. What is the existingproblem with standing on the right and walking on the left?

79. What did last year’sthree-week trial at Holborn station prove?

80.The research suggeststhat walking should be forbidden on escalators that are at least _________ inheight.

81. In the new trail, inaddition to one escalator banning walking in rush hours, the other “up”escalators will be used for_________________.

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8.

Translation

Directions: Translatethe following sentences into English, using the words given in the brackets.

(1).我真希望自己的文章有朝一日能见报。(hope)

(2).二十世纪末中国经济迅速发展。(witness)

(3).为买一双运动鞋而通宵排队有意义吗?(point)

(4).虽然当时我年幼,不理解这部电影的含义,但我记得我的家人都感动得落泪了。(too…to…)

(5).我阿姨苦读四年之后获得了文凭,那一刻她欣喜万分。(The moment…)

分值: 22分 查看题目解析 >
书面表达 本大题共25分。
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9.

II. Guided Writing

  Directions:  Write an English composition in 120–150 words according tothe instructions given below in Chinese.

   假设你是中华中学学生姚平,最近参加了一项研究性学习调研,课题为“父母是否以子女为荣”。通过调研你校学生及其父母,结果发现双方对此问题的看法有差异(数据如图所示)。根据图表写一份报告,在报告中,你必须:

1.      描述调研数据;

2.      分析可能导致这一结果的原因。学科&网

分值: 25分 查看题目解析 >
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