• 英语 2018年高三上海市第一次模拟试题
填空题 本大题共7小题,每小题10分,共70分。把答案填写在题中横线上。
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II. Grammar and Vocabulary

Section A

Directions: After reading the passage below, fill in the blanks to make the passages coherent and grammatically correct. For the blanks with a given word, fill in each blank with the proper form of the given word; for the other blanks, use one word that best fits each blank.

    It’s interesting when you think about how Japan is a nation (21) ______ appreciates the virtues of silence and good manners, and yet when it comes to eating noodles, Japanese people can be (22) ______ (loud) in the world.

    According to lifestyle website grapee.jp, slurping (发出"哧溜"声) when eating noodles (23) ______ (encourage) in Japanese culture. It’s believed that taking air into your mouth (24) ______ enhance the flavor of the noodles, and that it helps cool down the noodles. It’s also considered to be a way to show appreciation for the dish. Sometimes, just making the noise alone seems to make the noodles more enjoyable.

    It wasn’t until a new expression – “noodle harassment(骚扰)”-- came out last year on social media (25) ______ Japanese people started to realize that the slurping noise is making some foreign visitors uncomfortable.

    (26) ______ a response, Japanese instant noodle maker Nissin introduced a so-called noise-canceling fork last month. The fork, which looks like an electric toothbrush, is connected wirelessly to a smart phone. When the person using the fork starts to slurp, the fork sends a signal to the person’s phone, (27) ______ (make) it play a sound to mask the slurping noise.

    But is it really necessary? Dining traditions do vary. (28) ______ is considered to be proper table manners in one country is likely to be seen as rude in another. In India, people eat with their hands (29) ______ they think in this way they build a connection with the food. However, people who are used to eating with forks might find it uncomfortable to get their hands (30) ______ (cover) in oil and bits of food. But this eating method is part of Indian's culture, just like Japan's slurping is part of its own.

    “So, if your are eating noodles, whether that’s ramen, uudon, or soba, please slurp,” wrote reporter Brian Ashcraft on blog Kotaku. “If anyone gets annoyed while you are doing that, pay them no mind because they're missing the point entirely.”

分值: 10分 查看题目解析 >
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Section B

Directions: Fill in each blank with a proper word chosen from the box. Each word can only be used once. Note that there is one word more than you need.

    Scientists have developed a new surgical glue that could transform emergency treatments by sealing up critical wounds in the skin or the organs, without the need for staples or sutures(钉合或缝合).

    It’s called MeTro. It was developed by researchers from both Harvard Medical School and the University of Sydney, led by Nasim Annabi, an assistant professor of chemical __31__. The glue is made from a modified(改良的)human protein that responds to UV light, allowing the application and drying of the gel-like substance in just a minute.

    According to the international team of researchers behind the glue, it could quite literally be a lifesaver, sealing up wounds in 60 seconds without stopping the natural __32__ and relaxing of the organ or the skin it’s applied to. Wounds __33__ with MeTro can heal up in half the time compared with stitches or staples, the researchers claim, and if surgery is required then MeTro can simplify that __34__ too. It's also one of several ways researchers are exploring to engineer our body's own natural substances to help repair it when needed.

    The __35__ applications are powerful – from treating serious __36__ wounds at emergency sites such as following car accidents and in war zones, as well as improving hospital surgeries.

    MeTro is simple to apply, can be easily stored, and works closely with natural __37__ to heal a wound. What’s more, it degrades without leaving any kind of poisonous leftovers in the body.

    For now the trials are __38__ to animal models. But human trials are in the works, and the results to date are incredibly __39__. If the MeTro can be further developed into a __40__ product, it could become an essential part of a first responder’s toolkit.

分值: 10分 查看题目解析 >
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III. Reading Comprehension

Section A

Directions: For each blank in the following passage there arefour words or phrases marked A, B, C and D. Fill in each blank with the word orphrase that best fits the context.

       Competition is good for businesses. Inthe world of navigation(导航) systems, however, competition is also a necessity ---it may not be wise to rely on foreign systems for positioning and trackingservices. Now, ___41___ remarkable accuracy and reliability, China’s BeiDousystem has made its presence felt.

       The BeiDou project was set up in 1994.The first BeiDou satellite was not launched until 2000. Now, ___42___, thereare already more than 20 BeiDou satellites in orbit (轨道) . They form a ___43___ network thatprovides positioning, navigation and timing services for China and severalother Asian countries.

        This “home-grown" system is now ___44___ a majorupgrade. Earlier this month, two BeiDou-3 satellites, the first of China’s mostpowerful ___45___of navigation satellites, were launched into space. The launchmarks the beginning of the global ___46___ of the BeiDou navigation system.Over the next three years, China plans to send up 30 more BeiDou-3 satellites;The expanded navigation system will ___47___ create a network that is able tosupport military and civilian applications around the world.

       Scientists involved in the project saidthe new system would give civilian users an accuracy of 2.5 meters to fivemeters, overtaking that of the ___48___ positioning technologies. BeiDou’schief designer said the new satellites would be able to __49___ which lane acar is using on a motorway and __50___ the swing of a building in high winds.It will also be able to guide fire trucks to the nearest water hydrant (消防栓).TheChinese military, meanwhile, will be able to use coded signals for millimeter(毫米)___51___.

       China is only the third country in theworld to develop a navigation system on its own, after the United States (GPS)and Russia (GLONASS). Developing BeiDou is a necessity. The system __52___national security by ending a reliance on foreign systems. Moreover, itenhances China’s international reputation for technological ___53___.

       For most of us, the benefits of the newsatellite system will be felt in a couple of years when more phones are___54___ with BeiDou chips (芯片). Many smartphones today still use GPS and GLONASS.That’ll soon change with the development of BeiDou. One product manager___55___ most smartphones to be able to receive BeiDou signals. He says: “Inthree years’ time, people may still say ‘I’m using GPS’, but in fact, theirphone is tune in to BeiDou. ”

41.  

    A. dominating            

    B.boasting                 

    C. shifting                  

    D. inputting

42.  

    A. however                

    B.afterwards             

    C. moreover              

    D.therefore

43.  

    A. continental            

    B.local                       

    C. domestic                

    D. regional

44.  

    A. enduring                

    B.encountering          

    C. undergoing            

    D. processing

45.  

    A. generation             

    B.information            

    C. examination           

    D. revolution

46.  

    A. extension               

    B.expansion              

    C. interaction             

    D. invasion

47.  

    A. objectively            

    B. eventually              

    C.sufficiently            

    D. essentially

48.  

    A. existing                  

    B.progressing            

    C. upcoming               

    D. everlasting

49.  

    A. explore                  

    B.investigate             

    C. spot                        

    D. remind

50.  

    A. detect                    

    B.prevent                  

    C. protect                   

    D. adjust

51.  

    A. privacy                  

    B.accuracy                

    C. fluency                  

    D. currency

52.  

    A. convinces              

    B.insures                   

    C. highlights               

    D. strengthens

53.  

    A. innovation             

    B.consumption          

    C. emission                 

    D. exhibition

54.  

    A. decorated                     

    B.furnished               

    C. equipped                

    D. connected

55.  

    A. respects                 

    B.instructs                 

    C. inspects                  

    D. expects

分值: 15分 查看题目解析 >
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Section C

Directions: Read the following passage. Fill in each blank with a proper sentence given in the box. Each sentence can be used only once. Note that there are two more sentences than you need.

    A. But despite its popularity,experts warn that biometrics might not be as secure as we’d imagined.

    B. Security experts don’t think it absolutely necessary to use biometrictechnology.

    C. But usingmultiple security measures is the best defense.

    D. Now, this typeof technology might not be far away.

    E. If a person’s biometric information is stolen, that couldhave extremely serious consequences for that individual

    F. The chance that a randomperson could look at your iPhone X and unlock it with his face is about one ina million.

        Imagine you're standing in line to buy an afterschool snack at a store. You step up to the counter and the cashier scans your food. Next, you have to pay. But instead of scanning a QR code with your smartphone, you just hold out your hand so the cashier can scan your fingerprint. Or, a camera scans your face, your eyes or even your ear.

        __________67__________ As technology companies move away from traditional password, biometric(生物识别) security, which includes fingerprint, face and voice ID, is becoming increasingly popular.

        In 2013, Apple introduced the iPhone 5s, one of the first smartphones with a fingerprint scanner. Since then, using one’s fingerprint to unlock a phone and make mobile payments has become commonplace, bringing convenience to our lives. And since last year, Samsung has featured eye-scanning technology in its top smartphones, while Apple’s new iPhone X can even scan a user’s face.

        __________68__________ “Biometrics, ideally, are good,” John Michener, a biometric expert, told tech website Inverse. “In practice, not so much.”

=When introducing the new iPhone’s Face ID feature at Apple’s Keynote Event in September, Phil Schiller, Apple’s senior vice president, said, “__________69__________”

        But it’s already been done. In a video posted on community website Reddit on Nov 3, two brothers showed how they were each able to unlock the same iPhone X using their own face, Quartz reported. And they aren’t even twins.

        “We may expect too much from biometrics,” Anil Jain, a computer science professor at Michigan State University, told CBS news. “No security systems are perfect.”

        Earlier this year, Jain found a way to trick biometric security. Using a printed copy of a thumbprint, she was able to unlock a dead person's smartphone for police.

        “It’s good to see biometrics being used more,” Jain told CBS News, “because it adds another factor for security. __________70__________”

分值: 8分 查看题目解析 >
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IV. Summary Writing

Directions: Read the following passage. Summarize the main idea and the main point(s) of the passage in no more than 60 words. Use your own words as far as possible.

        It’s a common sight to see food delivery workers riding electric bikes through big cities in China. Most of them seem to be in a hurry, as they run red lights to deliver their meals in time. However, such reckless(鲁莽的)behavior often causes serious problems.

        In the first half of this year, food delivery drivers had 76 traffic accidents in Shanghai alone, according to the Shanghai Public Security Bureau. This means that on average, there is a food delivery worker that gets hurt or even dies on the road in Shanghai every 2.5 days.

        Other cities also share similar problems. In Nanjing, three people died and 2,473 were injured in road accidents related to food delivery workers in the same period, according to the Ministry of Public Security.

        The rise of reckless behavior among food delivery workers is closely related to the growing demand for their service, reported People’s Daily. About 150 million people in China use food delivery services, according to China Radio International (CRI). Such a big market has led to a large demand for food delivery workers, with some companies offering high salaries to attract new workers.

        However, food delivery workers are often under high pressure from their employers. They face company fines of 20 yuan for delivering food late and upwards of 200 yuan for receiving complaints, reported CRI. Moreover, the more orders they take, the more commission(佣金)they can earn, leading to some workers checking their mobile phones for new orders while they're riding their bikes.

        While most companies have measures requiring delivery workers to follow traffic rules, “there remains a problem of whether these requirements and rules for delivery workers are truly entering their ears, brains and hearts,” Wang Liang, deputy head of the Traffic Police Security Bureau, told news website The Paper.

        To solve the problem, some cities have taken action. Shanghai has asked companies to train their workers on traffic rules and safety. Now in Shenzhen, if a delivery worker gets caught breaking traffic rules more than twice, he or she will be banned from driving food delivery vehicles for a whole year.

分值: 15分 查看题目解析 >
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I. Translation

Directions: Translate the following sentences into English, using the words given in the brackets.

1.这个比赛旨在鼓励年轻人继承中国文化的传统。(aim)

2.不可否认个人信息的泄露可能会带来安全风险。 (denying)

3.人们对高质量教育的需求和不够充足的教育资源之间的矛盾有待解决。(remain)

4.令我们吃惊的是那个书呆子对上海绿地申花赢得了2017中国足协杯(CFA Cup) 冠军的消息一无所知。(ignorant)

分值: 15分 查看题目解析 >
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II.    Guided Writing

Directions: Write an English composition in 120-150 words according to the instructions given below in Chinese.

        马拉松(marathon)比赛需要志愿者发放矿泉水,学校校庆需要招募引导员。请你从中选取一个感兴趣的志愿者岗位,写信给负责老师完成报名,并在信中具体谈谈你的理由。

分值: 25分 查看题目解析 >
单选题 本大题共11小题,每小题2分,共22分。在每小题给出的4个选项中,有且只有一项是符合题目要求。
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Section B

Directions:Read the following threepassages. Each passage is followed by several questions or unfinishedstatements. For each of them there are four choices marked A, B, C and D.Choose the one that fits best according to the information given in the passageyou have just read.

                                (A)

         ASwedish power plant is taking reuse and recycle to the next level by burningunusable clothing instead of coal, Bloomberg reports.

        Retail giant Hennes & Mauritz, morecommonly known as H&M, is helping the utility transition away from coalthrough its moldy (发霉的) or otherwise unsalable clothing.

        The multi-fuel power and heating station inVästerås, central Sweden, is planning to be completely fossil-fuel free by2020. It’s the largest station of its kind and Sweden claims it’s one ofEurope’s cleanest. To kick its coal habit, the station is turning instead to otherburnable materials including recycled wood, rubbish and yes, clothes.

        “Our goal is to use only renewable andrecycled fuels,” Jens Neren, head of fuel supplies at the utility company whichowns and operates the Västerås plant, told Bloomberg.

        Johanna Dahl, head of communications forH&M in Sweden, told Bloomberg that the company allows only the burning ofclothes which are no longer safe to use.

       “Itis our legal obligation to make sure that clothes that contain mold or do notmeet the requirements of our strict restriction on chemicals are destroyed,”she said.

        The Västerås plant has burned around 15tons of old H&M clothes so far this year, compared with about 400,000 tonsof rubbish, Neren told Bloomberg.

        Sweden has one of the world’s greenerenergy gener ating systems,and has invested in bioenergy, solar power and electric buses. In 2015, theScandinavian country announced an ambitious aim to become one of the firstnations in the world to end its dependence on fossil fuels. According to theSwedish government, the country has already heavily reduced its dependence onoil, which accounted for 75% of the energy supply in 1970, and now makes up a20% share.

Which of the following can serve as fuel in the Västerås plant?

AFashionable coats in H&M chain store.

BOld TV sets deserted as rubbish.

CWooden furniture in second-hand shop.

DH&M clothes unsuitable for sale.

分值: 2分 查看题目解析 >
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                                (A)

         ASwedish power plant is taking reuse and recycle to the next level by burningunusable clothing instead of coal, Bloomberg reports.

        Retail giant Hennes & Mauritz, morecommonly known as H&M, is helping the utility transition away from coalthrough its moldy (发霉的) or otherwise unsalable clothing.

        The multi-fuel power and heating station inVästerås, central Sweden, is planning to be completely fossil-fuel free by2020. It’s the largest station of its kind and Sweden claims it’s one ofEurope’s cleanest. To kick its coal habit, the station is turning instead to otherburnable materials including recycled wood, rubbish and yes, clothes.

        “Our goal is to use only renewable andrecycled fuels,” Jens Neren, head of fuel supplies at the utility company whichowns and operates the Västerås plant, told Bloomberg.

        Johanna Dahl, head of communications forH&M in Sweden, told Bloomberg that the company allows only the burning ofclothes which are no longer safe to use.

       “Itis our legal obligation to make sure that clothes that contain mold or do notmeet the requirements of our strict restriction on chemicals are destroyed,”she said.

        The Västerås plant has burned around 15tons of old H&M clothes so far this year, compared with about 400,000 tonsof rubbish, Neren told Bloomberg.

        Sweden has one of the world’s greenerenergy gener ating systems,and has invested in bioenergy, solar power and electric buses. In 2015, theScandinavian country announced an ambitious aim to become one of the firstnations in the world to end its dependence on fossil fuels. According to theSwedish government, the country has already heavily reduced its dependence onoil, which accounted for 75% of the energy supply in 1970, and now makes up a20% share.

The underlined word in the last paragraph “generating” is closest in meaning to ______.

Aeliminating

Badjusting

Cproducing

Dcirculating

分值: 2分 查看题目解析 >
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                                (A)

         ASwedish power plant is taking reuse and recycle to the next level by burningunusable clothing instead of coal, Bloomberg reports.

        Retail giant Hennes & Mauritz, morecommonly known as H&M, is helping the utility transition away from coalthrough its moldy (发霉的) or otherwise unsalable clothing.

        The multi-fuel power and heating station inVästerås, central Sweden, is planning to be completely fossil-fuel free by2020. It’s the largest station of its kind and Sweden claims it’s one ofEurope’s cleanest. To kick its coal habit, the station is turning instead to otherburnable materials including recycled wood, rubbish and yes, clothes.

        “Our goal is to use only renewable andrecycled fuels,” Jens Neren, head of fuel supplies at the utility company whichowns and operates the Västerås plant, told Bloomberg.

        Johanna Dahl, head of communications forH&M in Sweden, told Bloomberg that the company allows only the burning ofclothes which are no longer safe to use.

       “Itis our legal obligation to make sure that clothes that contain mold or do notmeet the requirements of our strict restriction on chemicals are destroyed,”she said.

        The Västerås plant has burned around 15tons of old H&M clothes so far this year, compared with about 400,000 tonsof rubbish, Neren told Bloomberg.

        Sweden has one of the world’s greenerenergy gener ating systems,and has invested in bioenergy, solar power and electric buses. In 2015, theScandinavian country announced an ambitious aim to become one of the firstnations in the world to end its dependence on fossil fuels. According to theSwedish government, the country has already heavily reduced its dependence onoil, which accounted for 75% of the energy supply in 1970, and now makes up a20% share.

What can we learn from the passage?

AThe Swedish government discourages the development of bioenergy.

BClothes only take up a small proportion of the burning material.

CSweden’s fossil-fuel free plan is almost accomplished by now.

DSweden has an ambition to be the cleanest country in the world.

分值: 2分 查看题目解析 >
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                                (A)

         ASwedish power plant is taking reuse and recycle to the next level by burningunusable clothing instead of coal, Bloomberg reports.

        Retail giant Hennes & Mauritz, morecommonly known as H&M, is helping the utility transition away from coalthrough its moldy (发霉的) or otherwise unsalable clothing.

        The multi-fuel power and heating station inVästerås, central Sweden, is planning to be completely fossil-fuel free by2020. It’s the largest station of its kind and Sweden claims it’s one ofEurope’s cleanest. To kick its coal habit, the station is turning instead to otherburnable materials including recycled wood, rubbish and yes, clothes.

        “Our goal is to use only renewable andrecycled fuels,” Jens Neren, head of fuel supplies at the utility company whichowns and operates the Västerås plant, told Bloomberg.

        Johanna Dahl, head of communications forH&M in Sweden, told Bloomberg that the company allows only the burning ofclothes which are no longer safe to use.

       “Itis our legal obligation to make sure that clothes that contain mold or do notmeet the requirements of our strict restriction on chemicals are destroyed,”she said.

        The Västerås plant has burned around 15tons of old H&M clothes so far this year, compared with about 400,000 tonsof rubbish, Neren told Bloomberg.

        Sweden has one of the world’s greenerenergy gener ating systems,and has invested in bioenergy, solar power and electric buses. In 2015, theScandinavian country announced an ambitious aim to become one of the firstnations in the world to end its dependence on fossil fuels. According to theSwedish government, the country has already heavily reduced its dependence onoil, which accounted for 75% of the energy supply in 1970, and now makes up a20% share.

What is the main idea of the passage?

AA Swedish power plant is burning unusable H&M clothes for fuel.

BThe Swedish government aims high and is taking effective action.

CH&M is looking for a new way to strengthen its position in fashion.

DCoal and oil are no longer regarded as the primary fuels in Sweden.

分值: 2分 查看题目解析 >
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                                (B)

RAINFOREST ADVENTURE TIPS

1.Find out about the trail andsurroundings, be sure that you have enough time to complete the entire routebefore darkness falls. Do not stray off the path to chase after animals.

2.Use good judgment regarding thefitness level required for the trek(徒步跋涉), and know your physical limits.

3.Always inform the parkofficials or let someone know of your plans and destination for the day,especially if going alone.

4.Take plenty of water and pack afew easy to eat snacks to keep energy level up. Unless trekking with a localguide, it is not advisable to eat jungle fruit or drink from any water source.

5.Be as quiet as possible toavoid scaring any wildlife. Getting an early start during the dawn provides thebest chance to sight animals seeking food and the warmth of the early morningsun.

6.Wear thin, loose, preferablycotton clothing to remain comfortable.

7.Cover arms and legs with longtrousers and long-sleeved shirts to ward off mosquitoes and to provideprotection against thorny plants.

8.Be prepared for sudden rainshowers by carrying a poncho that wraps over both body and your carrying packto keep everything dry.

9. Choose footwear with properankle support and good traction.

10.Awide brimmed hat helps to shade a trekker from the heat of the tropical sun.

Before an adventure, a trekker should ______.

Atell the park officials his destination and time schedule

Bpack up some jungle fruit juice and pre-cooked meals

Cconsult a local guide about the most adventurous route

Dhave his fitness level assessed at the tourist center

分值: 2分 查看题目解析 >
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                                (B)

RAINFOREST ADVENTURE TIPS

1.Find out about the trail andsurroundings, be sure that you have enough time to complete the entire routebefore darkness falls. Do not stray off the path to chase after animals.

2.Use good judgment regarding thefitness level required for the trek(徒步跋涉), and know your physical limits.

3.Always inform the parkofficials or let someone know of your plans and destination for the day,especially if going alone.

4.Take plenty of water and pack afew easy to eat snacks to keep energy level up. Unless trekking with a localguide, it is not advisable to eat jungle fruit or drink from any water source.

5.Be as quiet as possible toavoid scaring any wildlife. Getting an early start during the dawn provides thebest chance to sight animals seeking food and the warmth of the early morningsun.

6.Wear thin, loose, preferablycotton clothing to remain comfortable.

7.Cover arms and legs with longtrousers and long-sleeved shirts to ward off mosquitoes and to provideprotection against thorny plants.

8.Be prepared for sudden rainshowers by carrying a poncho that wraps over both body and your carrying packto keep everything dry.

9. Choose footwear with properankle support and good traction.

10.Awide brimmed hat helps to shade a trekker from the heat of the tropical sun.

Which of the following is NOT suitable for a rainforest trekking?

ALong-sleeved cotton shirts.

BTight sports shorts.

CHiking boots.

DA wide brimmed hat.

分值: 2分 查看题目解析 >
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                                (B)

RAINFOREST ADVENTURE TIPS

1.Find out about the trail andsurroundings, be sure that you have enough time to complete the entire routebefore darkness falls. Do not stray off the path to chase after animals.

2.Use good judgment regarding thefitness level required for the trek(徒步跋涉), and know your physical limits.

3.Always inform the parkofficials or let someone know of your plans and destination for the day,especially if going alone.

4.Take plenty of water and pack afew easy to eat snacks to keep energy level up. Unless trekking with a localguide, it is not advisable to eat jungle fruit or drink from any water source.

5.Be as quiet as possible toavoid scaring any wildlife. Getting an early start during the dawn provides thebest chance to sight animals seeking food and the warmth of the early morningsun.

6.Wear thin, loose, preferablycotton clothing to remain comfortable.

7.Cover arms and legs with longtrousers and long-sleeved shirts to ward off mosquitoes and to provideprotection against thorny plants.

8.Be prepared for sudden rainshowers by carrying a poncho that wraps over both body and your carrying packto keep everything dry.

9. Choose footwear with properankle support and good traction.

10.Awide brimmed hat helps to shade a trekker from the heat of the tropical sun.

If a trekker starts out at dawn, he may ______.

Aescape being caught in the rain

Bsight scared wildlife

Cenjoy the heat of the tropical sun

Dsee animals seeking food

分值: 2分 查看题目解析 >
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                                (C)

       The largestgenetic study of mosquitoes has found their ability to resistinsecticides is evolving rapidly andspreading across Africa, putting millions of people at higher risk ofcontracting malaria(疟疾).

       British scientistswho led the work said mosquitoes' growing resistance to control tools such asinsecticide-treated bed nets and insecticide spraying, which have helped cutmalaria cases since 2000, now threatens “to disturb malaria control”in Africa.

       “Our study highlightsthe severe challenges facing public efforts to control mosquitoes andto manage and limit insecticide resistance,” saidMartin Donnelly of the Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine, whoworked on the study with a team from Britain’s Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute.

       Latest WorldHealth Organization (WHO) data show that 216 million people were infectedlast year with the malaria parasite(寄生虫), which is transmitted by blood-suckingAnopheles mosquitoes.

       The diseasekilled 445,000 people in 2016, and the majority of them were childrenin sub-Saharan Africa.

       To understand howmosquitoes are evolving, the researchers sequenced the DNA of 765 wildAnopheles mosquitoes taken from 15 locations across eight African countries.Their work, published in the journal Nature on Wednesday, created the largestdata resource on natural genetic variation forany species of insect. 

       Analyzingthe data, the scientists found that the Anopheles gambiae mosquitoes (冈比亚疟蚊)were extremely genetically diverse (多样化的) comparedwith most other animal species. This high genetic diversityenables rapid evolution, they said, and helpsto explain how mosquitoes develop insecticide resistance so quickly.

       The data alsoshowed the rapid evolution of insecticide resistance appeared to be due to manypreviously unknown genetic variants(变体)withincertain genes. The scientists said these genetic variants for insecticideresistance were not only emerging independently in different parts of Africa,but were also being spread across the continent by mosquito migration.

       Michael Chew,an expert at Britain’s Wellcome Trust global health charity which helped fundthe research, said the finds underlined the importance of pushing scientificresearch ahead to control malaria.

       Globalefforts to control malaria through effective vaccine, insecticides and the bestdrug combinations require urgent, united action by scientists, drug companies,governments and the WHO.

Which of the following is scientists’ headache?

AThe number of mosquitoes in Africa is growing rapidly.

BSome genetic variants of mosquitoes are still unknown.

CThe existing insecticides aren’t as effective as they used to be.

DMillions of African people have resistance to medicines for malaria.

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1

                                (C)

       The largestgenetic study of mosquitoes has found their ability to resistinsecticides is evolving rapidly andspreading across Africa, putting millions of people at higher risk ofcontracting malaria(疟疾).

       British scientistswho led the work said mosquitoes' growing resistance to control tools such asinsecticide-treated bed nets and insecticide spraying, which have helped cutmalaria cases since 2000, now threatens “to disturb malaria control”in Africa.

       “Our study highlightsthe severe challenges facing public efforts to control mosquitoes andto manage and limit insecticide resistance,” saidMartin Donnelly of the Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine, whoworked on the study with a team from Britain’s Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute.

       Latest WorldHealth Organization (WHO) data show that 216 million people were infectedlast year with the malaria parasite(寄生虫), which is transmitted by blood-suckingAnopheles mosquitoes.

       The diseasekilled 445,000 people in 2016, and the majority of them were childrenin sub-Saharan Africa.

       To understand howmosquitoes are evolving, the researchers sequenced the DNA of 765 wildAnopheles mosquitoes taken from 15 locations across eight African countries.Their work, published in the journal Nature on Wednesday, created the largestdata resource on natural genetic variation forany species of insect. 

       Analyzingthe data, the scientists found that the Anopheles gambiae mosquitoes (冈比亚疟蚊)were extremely genetically diverse (多样化的) comparedwith most other animal species. This high genetic diversityenables rapid evolution, they said, and helpsto explain how mosquitoes develop insecticide resistance so quickly.

       The data alsoshowed the rapid evolution of insecticide resistance appeared to be due to manypreviously unknown genetic variants(变体)withincertain genes. The scientists said these genetic variants for insecticideresistance were not only emerging independently in different parts of Africa,but were also being spread across the continent by mosquito migration.

       Michael Chew,an expert at Britain’s Wellcome Trust global health charity which helped fundthe research, said the finds underlined the importance of pushing scientificresearch ahead to control malaria.

       Globalefforts to control malaria through effective vaccine, insecticides and the bestdrug combinations require urgent, united action by scientists, drug companies,governments and the WHO.

Malaria cases can be cut by ______.

Athreatening drug companies

Bspraying insecticides

Climiting blood donation

Dtransmitting data

分值: 2分 查看题目解析 >
1

                                (C)

       The largestgenetic study of mosquitoes has found their ability to resistinsecticides is evolving rapidly andspreading across Africa, putting millions of people at higher risk ofcontracting malaria(疟疾).

       British scientistswho led the work said mosquitoes' growing resistance to control tools such asinsecticide-treated bed nets and insecticide spraying, which have helped cutmalaria cases since 2000, now threatens “to disturb malaria control”in Africa.

       “Our study highlightsthe severe challenges facing public efforts to control mosquitoes andto manage and limit insecticide resistance,” saidMartin Donnelly of the Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine, whoworked on the study with a team from Britain’s Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute.

       Latest WorldHealth Organization (WHO) data show that 216 million people were infectedlast year with the malaria parasite(寄生虫), which is transmitted by blood-suckingAnopheles mosquitoes.

       The diseasekilled 445,000 people in 2016, and the majority of them were childrenin sub-Saharan Africa.

       To understand howmosquitoes are evolving, the researchers sequenced the DNA of 765 wildAnopheles mosquitoes taken from 15 locations across eight African countries.Their work, published in the journal Nature on Wednesday, created the largestdata resource on natural genetic variation forany species of insect. 

       Analyzingthe data, the scientists found that the Anopheles gambiae mosquitoes (冈比亚疟蚊)were extremely genetically diverse (多样化的) comparedwith most other animal species. This high genetic diversityenables rapid evolution, they said, and helpsto explain how mosquitoes develop insecticide resistance so quickly.

       The data alsoshowed the rapid evolution of insecticide resistance appeared to be due to manypreviously unknown genetic variants(变体)withincertain genes. The scientists said these genetic variants for insecticideresistance were not only emerging independently in different parts of Africa,but were also being spread across the continent by mosquito migration.

       Michael Chew,an expert at Britain’s Wellcome Trust global health charity which helped fundthe research, said the finds underlined the importance of pushing scientificresearch ahead to control malaria.

       Globalefforts to control malaria through effective vaccine, insecticides and the bestdrug combinations require urgent, united action by scientists, drug companies,governments and the WHO.

What CANNOT be concluded from the passage?

AChildren are more likely to be bit by mosquitoes.

BMany previously unknown variants are found in the study.

CThe mosquito migration contributes to the spread of variants.

DAnopheles mosquitoes have great genetic diversity.

分值: 2分 查看题目解析 >
1

                                (C)

       The largestgenetic study of mosquitoes has found their ability to resistinsecticides is evolving rapidly andspreading across Africa, putting millions of people at higher risk ofcontracting malaria(疟疾).

       British scientistswho led the work said mosquitoes' growing resistance to control tools such asinsecticide-treated bed nets and insecticide spraying, which have helped cutmalaria cases since 2000, now threatens “to disturb malaria control”in Africa.

       “Our study highlightsthe severe challenges facing public efforts to control mosquitoes andto manage and limit insecticide resistance,” saidMartin Donnelly of the Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine, whoworked on the study with a team from Britain’s Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute.

       Latest WorldHealth Organization (WHO) data show that 216 million people were infectedlast year with the malaria parasite(寄生虫), which is transmitted by blood-suckingAnopheles mosquitoes.

       The diseasekilled 445,000 people in 2016, and the majority of them were childrenin sub-Saharan Africa.

       To understand howmosquitoes are evolving, the researchers sequenced the DNA of 765 wildAnopheles mosquitoes taken from 15 locations across eight African countries.Their work, published in the journal Nature on Wednesday, created the largestdata resource on natural genetic variation forany species of insect. 

       Analyzingthe data, the scientists found that the Anopheles gambiae mosquitoes (冈比亚疟蚊)were extremely genetically diverse (多样化的) comparedwith most other animal species. This high genetic diversityenables rapid evolution, they said, and helpsto explain how mosquitoes develop insecticide resistance so quickly.

       The data alsoshowed the rapid evolution of insecticide resistance appeared to be due to manypreviously unknown genetic variants(变体)withincertain genes. The scientists said these genetic variants for insecticideresistance were not only emerging independently in different parts of Africa,but were also being spread across the continent by mosquito migration.

       Michael Chew,an expert at Britain’s Wellcome Trust global health charity which helped fundthe research, said the finds underlined the importance of pushing scientificresearch ahead to control malaria.

       Globalefforts to control malaria through effective vaccine, insecticides and the bestdrug combinations require urgent, united action by scientists, drug companies,governments and the WHO.

Which is FALSE about the genetic study of mosquitoes?

AIt created the largest data on natural genetic variation for any insect species.

BIt found the possible causes for the rapid evolution of insecticide resistance.

CIt discovered where the genetic variants emerged and how they were spread.

DIt highlighted the public efforts and appealed to limit the use of insecticides.

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