What do you, the trees, and a bird have in common? __（1）__ All living things must have water to survive, whether they get it from a water fountain, a rain cloud, or a little bottle attached to the side of a bird cage.
__（2）__ Water makes up more than half of your body weight and a person can't survive for more than a few days without it. Why? Your body has lots of important jobs and it needs water to do many of them. For instance, your blood, which contains a lot of water, carries oxygen to all the cells of your body. Without oxygen, those tiny cells would die and your body would stop working.
Water is also in lymph, a fluid (流体) that is part of your immune system, which helps you fight off illness. __（3）__ Water is needed for digestive juices, urine, and poop. And you can bet that water makes up most of sweat.
In addition to being an important part of the fluids in your body, each cell depends on water to function normally.
__（4）__ Any fluid you drink will contain water, but water and milk are the best choices. Lots of foods contain water, too. __（5）__ You could probably tell that if you've ever bitten into a peach or pear and felt the juices dripping down your chin! Vegetables, too, contain a lot of water—think of biting into a fat tomato from the garden.
A.You need water to digest your food and get rid of waste, too.
B.You all need water.
C.Without water, your body would stop working properly.
D.How much is enough?
E．Your body doesn't get water only from drinking water.
F．When you drink is also important.
G．Fruit contains quite a bit of water.
（1）根据下一句All living things must have water to survive，...可知选B项。
（2）根据下一句Water makes up more than half of your body weight and a person can't survive for more than a few days without it. 可知选C项。
（3）根据下两句Water is needed for digestive juices, urine, and poop. And you can bet... 可知选A项。
（4）根据下两句Any fluid you drink will contain water, but water and milk are the best choices. Lots根据下一句You could probably tell that if you've ever bitten into a peach or pear... 可知选G项。of foods contain water, too.可知选E项。
When our restaurant business failed, we headed north in a camping truck to Texas, hoping to have a “fresh start”．
At the__（1）__of Palo Duro Canyon (峡谷) State Park, I__（2）__a job advertisement hiring park hosts. The position offered a __（3）__， permanent campsite in the park, and__（4）__， the hosts served as a link between the park's guests and the rangers (护林人). It was the perfect solution: a rentfree place to reorganize our lives. We entered the park and I made an__（5）__for the following day.
The park was__（6）__， so it took us some time to find an available site. That evening, as we finished our dinner, my wife saw two large skunks (臭鼬) walking toward our table. We __（7）__ climbed onto the table and, for the next four hours, waited for them to __（8）__ our camp.
Having survived that night, we were __（9）__ that everything else would be all right. The next day we met with the people who ran the park. They explained our__（10）__ and gave us a beautiful campsite.
That evening, __（11）__， we learned about the canyon __（12）__. They were strong and cold, rocking our little camping truck violently, and we lay __（13）__ in the dark until the winds died away.
__（14）__the weeks that followed, we learned to survive in our truck and __（15）__ the little money my wife __（16）__ by substitute teaching. Building a successful business and then losing it had left very little time for building a successful __（17）__. For a time after our business __（18）__ I thought I might lose my family as well.
Living in the tiny __（19）__ with no television, we sat close together reading and talking. One evening, standing under a jeweled sky, I found myself __（20）__ for all the hardships. We had walked the trails and climbed the canyon walls. We had become a family!
1．A. back B. edge C. centre D. entrance
2．A. sponsored B. published C. noticed D. answered
3．A. safe B. free C. convenient D. beautiful
4．A. in return B. in time C. in short D. in turn
5．A. attempt B. agreement C. appeal D. appointment
6．A. crowded B. dangerous C. ideal D. quiet
7．A. repeatedly B. immediately C. eventually D. calmly
8．A. attack B. leave C. pass D. search
9．A. satisfied B. determined C. confident D. aware
10．A. responsibilities B. requirements C. circumstances D. conditions
11．A. moreover B. therefore C. meanwhile D. however
12．A. winds B. snows C. woods D. trails
13．A. shaking B. quarrelling C. mourning D. aching
14．A. After B. Between C. During D. Beyond
15．A. give away B. hand out C. live on D. put aside
16．A. borrowed B. earned C. posted D. raised
17．A. business B. career C. family D. image
18．A. started B. failed C. expanded D. declined
19．A. truck B. park C. house D. camp
20．A. desperate B. ready C. suitable D. thankful
9.假定你是李华，目前正在英国学习。你在网上看到某宠物收容中心 (DogsTrust) 正在招募志愿者，请根据以下招聘信息，给中心负责人John Smith写一封申请信。
Dear John Smith，
I am Li Hua，now a student in Britain. I am writing to you as to the volunteering work in Dogs Trust.
I've just read about a notice on the Internet，saying you need some volunteers during the summer vacation. I hope I can help with your work. To tell the truth，I have loved to take care of dogs since I was a child，so I wish to be offered the chance. My summer vacation is from June 28 to August 30，2014，and every day I can spend more than two hours in the center to attend the dogs or assist the training classes. I think the time with the lovely dogs is wonderful. Meanwhile，by volunteering I can gain work experience and confidence when dealing with problems.
I'd appreciate it if you could let me work for your Dogs Trust. And hope to hear from you pretty soon.
All the best.
One afternoon last week, I saw three tearful children from my son's school being comforted by teachers. That morning, my 11yearold had stomach pains, retching (干呕) into a bowl. Talking to other mothers later, I heard about other children with stomachache or difficulty sleeping the night before.
What caused so much pain? Sports day. Sports day might be necessary at a highly competitive independent school, but not at a village primary school. For the children who can fly like the wind, sports day causes no problem. For those who are overweight or just not good at sport, it is a nightmare (噩梦). Even for those who enjoy running but fall halfway down the track in front of the entire school and their parents，it can prove a disaster.
Why do we put our children through this annual suffering? Some may say competition is character building；or it's taking part, not winning, that's important；or that it is a tradition of school life. I just felt great pity for those children in tears or in pain.
Team games at the end of sports day produced some close races, wild enthusiasm, lots of shouting—and were fun to watch. More importantly, the children who were not so fast or quick at passing the ball were hidden a little from everyone's eyes. Some of them also had the thrill of being on the winning side.
I wish that sports day could be abandoned and replaced with some other less competitive event. Perhaps an afternoon of team games, with a few races for those who want them, would be less stressful for the children and a lot more fun to watch.
（1）What can we learn about the author's son from Paragraph 1?
A.He talked with some mothers.
B.He comforted his classmates.
C.He had difficulty in sleeping.
D.He suffered from stomachache.
（2）Sports day is still an annual event in this school probably because __________.
A.this is an independent school
B.it is a tradition of the school
C.it helps children lose weight
D.children enjoy watching sports
（3）What does the author think about team games?
A.They should include more stressful races.
B.They are acceptable to different children.
C.They should be abandoned at primary schools.
D.They are less fun for those who love running.
（4）What is the author's attitude towards sports day?
（1）细节理解题。根据短文第一段第二句That morning，my 11yearold had stomach pains...可知答案为D项。
（2）细节理解题。根据短文第三段倒数第二句中的or that it is a tradition of school life可知答案为B项。
（3）细节理解题。由短文第四段最后两句More importantly, the children who were not so fast or quick at passing the ball...Some of them also had the thrill of being on the winning side.可知，team games为不同的孩子接受，所以B项正确。A项错在more stressful；C项说的是sports day，而不是team games，由短文第二段第三句Sports day might be necessary...but not at a village primary school.可知；D项在短文第二段最后一句Even for those who enjoy running...it can prove a disaster.中有所提及，实际上说的也是sports day，而不是team games.
（4）作者态度题。根据短文最后一段第一句I wish that sports day could be abandoned and replaced with some other less competitive event.可知，作者不赞同sports day，所以应选择A项critical(批判的)。其他三项含义：neutral中立的；positive赞同的；ambiguous模棱两可的。
MOOCs, short for “massive open online courses，” mark an important, possibly revolutionary, development in education. These courses are on line, free of charge, and open to anyone in the world who has a laptop and an Internet connection. Moreover, they are mainly offered by great universities like Stanford, Berkeley, Harvard and Columbia.
The courses are arranged according to how difficult they are, enabling students to progress from beginners to the advanced. The courses cover not only a broad range of science subjects such as math and computer science, but also courses in social sciences and humanities. Though MOOCs are not offered for credit and degree, many students enroll(加入) in the courses for real skills or knowledge which they can put to some practical use.
The format(形式) seems better than the traditional school class. The average quality of the lecturers is much higher. Besides, students can learn back and forward—that is, they can go at their own learning speed, which they can't do in a live lecture. And, more importantly, they don't have to travel anywhere to attend an online lecture. There is a problem of asking questions of the lecturer in a class of ten thousand students, but some MOOCs have solved it by allowing students to post questions on line for a vote, and only the most popular questions are put to the lecturer.
In a knowledge age, lifelong learning is not confined to a traditional classroom. Students taking MOOCS are usually very clever, have work experience, and in many cases, have already developed a set of practical skills. Moreover, they also offer unique international perspectives(远景) that would be the envy of any school classroom.
（1）Which of the following statements is NOT true about MOOCs?
A.The word “MOOCs” is short for “massive open online campuses”．
B.Anyone who has a computer and an Internet connection can take MOOCs.
C.MOOCs are usually offered by firstclass universities in the world.
D.MOOCs may be a breakthrough in the development of education.
（2）MOOCs seem to have an advantage over traditional school classes in that ________.
A.there is a problem of asking questions in traditional classes
B.students enrolling in MOOCs can get credit and degree easily
C.students can learn at their own study pace
D.students can travel to many places when taking MOOCs
（3）The meaning of the underlined word “confined” means ________.
（1）细节理解题。根据第一段第一句话：MOOCs, short for “massive open online courses，” mark an important, possibly revolutionary, development in education. 可知MOOCs是massive open online courses 的缩写，而不是massive open online campuses 的缩写。
（2）细节理解题。根据第三段第三句话：Besides, students can learn back and forward—that is, they can go at their own learning speed, which they can't do in a live lecture. 同学们可以以自己的学习速度来进行课程，这是传统的课堂模式所达不到的。
There was a woman who went to the airport ____（1）____ (hurry)．She was so absorbed ____（2）____her own thoughts that she was not aware they were going on a different route. Suddenly，a man ___（3）____ (go) inside the cab and took her handbag where she placed her visa，passport，and all her money for the trip. She kept on thinking how unlucky she was to be in that situation. That very same night，she heard a piece of ____（4）____ (shock) news. Flight 230 crashed！It was the plane that she was supposed to board into. If she had not lost her precious ____（5）____ (belong)，she could have lost something far ___（6）____( much) important — her life!
Sometimes bad things really happen. We fail in our exams，or get rejected by others. There are times ____（7）____ nothing seems to go our way. So what do we do about it？We must take all these frustrations out of our chest and start all over again with the consistent faith that we ____（8）____ (get) what are deserved(应得的)．
If you failed in the exams，maybe you'd be more successful and much happier in ____（9）____ field. If you are rejected by your friend，there are plenty of others out there who are much more deserving of (值得的) your love and affection. Don’t waste your time and energy ____（10）____ things that can't be changed.
（2）考查介词。be absorbed in.全神贯注于。
（3）考查时态。由下文and took 即可知道，此处为并列谓语动词，时态一致。
Passenger pigeons (旅鸽)once flew over much of the United States in unbelievable numbers. Written accounts from the 18th and 19th centuries described flocks (群)so large that they darkened the sky for hours.
It was calculated that when its population reached its highest point, there were more than 3 billion passenger pigeons—a number equal to 24 to 40 percent of the total bird population in the United States, making it perhaps the most abundant bird in the world. Even as late as 1870 when their numbers had already become smaller, a flock believed to be 1 mile wide and 320 miles (about 515 kilometers) long was seen near Cincinnati.
Sadly the abundance of passenger pigeons may have been their undoing. Where the birds were most abundant, people believed there was an everlasting supply and killed them by the thousands. Commercial hunters attracted them to small clearings with grain, waited until pigeons had settled to feed, then threw large nets over them, taking hundreds at a time. The birds were shipped to large cities and sold in restaurants.
By the closing decades of the 19th century，the hardwood forests where passenger pigeons nested had been damaged by Americans' need for wood, which scattered (驱散) the flocks and forced the birds to go farther north, where cold temperatures and spring storms contributed to their decline. Soon the great flocks were gone, never to be seen again.
In 1897, the state of Michigan passed a law prohibiting the killing of passenger pigeons, but by then, no sizable flocks had been seen in the state for 10 years. The last confirmed wild pigeon in the United States was shot by a boy in Pike County, Ohio, in 1900. For a time, a few birds survived under human care. The last of them, known affectionately as Martha, died at the Cincinnati Zoological Garden on September 1, 1914.
（1） In the 18th and early 19th centuries, passenger pigeons________.
A. were the biggest bird in the world
B. lived mainly in the south of America
C. did great harm to the natural environment
D. were the largest bird population in the US
（2） The underlined word “undoing” probably refers to the pigeons'________.
（3） What was the main reason for people to kill passenger pigeons?
A. To seek pleasure.
B. To save other birds.
C. To make money.
D. To protect crops.
（4）What can we infer about the law passed in Michigan?
A. It was ignored by the public.
B. It was declared too late.
C. It was unfair.
D. It was strict.
（2）词义猜测题。由第三段第一句开头的“Sadly”可知 undoing 表示一个“消极的，非人们所期望的”词义，故排除C项和D项；再由下一句可知旅鸽遭到人类的捕杀，故排除A项，选择B项。
When different species of birds flock(聚集) together, their flight formations are determined by social dynamics both between and within species.
New research from the Universities of Cambridge and Exeter reveals for the first time that, contrary to current models used to explain the movement of flocks, the differences between bird species and social relationships between individuals play a critical role in determining the dynamics of mixedspecies flocks.
The unified(群集) behaviour of bird flocks has puzzled scientists for hundreds of years. One naturalist from the turn of the century even suggested telepathy(心灵感应) may be involved. There have since been more logical explanations, including mathematical models that show that repeated interactions among individuals following simple rules can generate coordinated(协同的) group movements. However, these models usually rely on the assumption that individuals within groups are identical and interact independently, which may not reflect reality.
Jolle Jolles, a PhD student at the University of Cambridge's Department of Zoology and author of the paper, said：“Spectacular collective behaviour can be found in a large range of animal species, and we now know that often these complex coordinated group movements may be the result of individuals following simple rules. However, rarely are the individual characteristics and social relationships within them taken into account. Our research highlights that these striking displays of group behaviour are much more complex.”
By analysing highresolution photographs of mixed flocks of rooks and jackdaws(both from the corvid family), the researchers found that rather than individuals interacting in a consistent fashion throughout the flock, interactions depended on social dynamics between the different species as well as relationships within a species.
The researchers discovered that birds prefer to fly close to members of their own species, and that the larger and more dominant rooks take the lead by flying near the front of flocks. Additionally, the lifelong, monogamous(一妻一夫制的) pair bonds that are characteristic of both species seem to be reflected in flight, as birds often fly particularly close to a single, same species partner.
Dr Alex Thornton, principal investigator of the Cambridge Jackdaw Project, now at the University of Exeter and author of the paper, said “Together, our findings demonstrate that to understand the structure of groups，such as bird flocks，we need to consider the characteristics and relationships of the individuals within them.”
（2） The underlined word “generate” means ________.
（2）According to Jolle Jolles, what are seldom considered about coordinated group movement?
A.Individual characteristics and social relationship between them.
B.Repeated interactions among individuals and social dynamics.
C.Telepathy and social relationship between them.
D.The structure of groups and the varieties of species.
（3）Birds may prefer to fly the closest to ________.
A.the largest one
B.the most dynamic one
C.the lifelong partner
D.the friendly partner
（4）What is the main idea of the passage?
A.How birds interact in simple rules.
B.How birds of different feathers flock together.
C.Why birds show preference to flocking.
D.Why birds display the characteristics.
（1）词义猜测题。根据第三段提到There have since been more logical explanations, including mathematical models that show that repeated interactions among individuals following simple rules can generate coordinated(协同的) group movements. 已经有更多的逻辑的解释，包括一些数据模型可以表明个体之间重复性的相互作用能够产生协同的团队行动，故选C项。
（2）细节理解题。根据第四段提到However, rarely are the individual characteristics and social relationships within them taken into account. 可知选A项。
（3）细节理解题。根据第六段提到The researchers discovered that birds prefer to fly close to members of their own species, and that the larger and more dominant rooks take the lead by flying near the front of flocks. 可知选C项。
I was taking a train to London's Victoria Station. I had noticed that the carriage was noise and filled with people.
Before long，a train inspector comes to check our tickets. A passenger realized he couldn't find his ticket but became quite upset. Then everyone in the carriage began searching the ticket，which was eventually found under a seat several rows from his owner. The person who found a ticket smiled with pleasure at his success.
No one in the carriage had previous spoken to or even noticed the ticketowner before. Yet they had so quickly offered the strangers their help. If we could show concern to others on need，the world would be a better place to live in.