（Bags） of Love
Last year, I was assigned to work at an office near my mother’s house, so I stayed with her for a month. During that time, I helped out with the housework and contributed to the groceries. After less than a week, I started noticing that the groceries were running out pretty quickly — we were always suddenly out of something. (25)___ ____(wonder) how my mum could consume them so quickly, I began observing her daily routine for two weeks. To my surprise, I found that she would pack a paper bag full of canned goods and head out every morning at about nine. Eventually, I decided to follow her and (26)___ ____ happened truly amazed me. She was taking the food to the refugee camp, in (27)____ __ she distributed it to children.
I asked around and found out that my mum was very well known in the area. The kids were very friendly with her and even looked up to her as if she were their own mother. Then it hit me —shy would she mot want to tell me about what she (28)__ ___(do)? Was she worried about how I would react or that I would stop (29)____ _(buy) the groceries if I found out?
When she got home, I told her about my discovery. (30)_ ____ she could react, I gave her a big hug and told her she didn’t need to keep it a secret (31)__ ____ me. She told me that some of the children lived with an older lady in a shelter while others slept on the streets. For years, my mum has been helping out by giving them whatever food she could spare. I was so impressed by (32)___ __ selfless she was.
Stress: Good or Bad?
Stress used to be an almost unknown word, but now that we are used to talking about it, I have found that people are beginning to get stressed about being stressed.
In recent years, stress(33)__ ____(regard) as a cause of a whole range of medical problems, from high blood pressure to mental illness. But like so many other things, it is only too much stress(34)__ ____ does you harm. It is time you considered that if there were no stress in your life, you would achieve a little. If you are stuck at home with no stress, then your level of performance will be low. Up to a certain point, the more stress you are under, the (35)__ ___(good) your performance will be. Beyond a certain point, though , further stress will only lead to exhaustion, illness and finally a breakdown. You can tell when you are over the top and on the downward slope, by asking yourself (36)_ ______ number of questions. Do you, for instance, feel that too much is being expected of (37)__ ____, and yet find it impossible to say no? Do you find yourself getting impatient of (38) __ ___(annoy) with people over unimportant things?... If the answer to all those questions is yes, you had better(39)_ _____(control ) your stress, as you probably are under more stress than is good for you.
To some extent you can control the amount of stress in your life. Doctors have worked out a chart showing how much stress is involved in various events. Getting married is 50, pregnancy 40, moving house 20, Christmas 12,etc. If the total stress in your life is over 150, you are twice as likely (40)_____ __ (get )ill.
（）Directions: For each blank in the following passage there are four words or phrases marked A, B, C and D. Fill in each blank with the word or phrase that best fits the context.
In the 1960s, Douglas McGregor, one of the key thinkers in the art of management, developed the mow famous Theory X and Theory Y. Theory X is the idea that people instinctively _ work and will do anything to avoid it. Theory Y is the view that everyone has the potential to find satisfaction in work.
In any case, despite so much evidence to the 52 _ , many managers still agree to Theory X. They believe, 53 _ , that their employees need constant supervision if they are to work effectively, or that decisions must be imposed from 54 _ without consultation. This, of course, makes for authoritarian (专制的) managers.
Different cultures have different ways of 55 _ people. Unlike authoritarian management, some cultures, particularly in Asia, are well known for the consultative nature of decision-making—all members of the department or work group are asked to 56 _ to this process. This is management by the collective opinion. Many western companies have tried to imitate such Asian ways of doing things, which are based on general 57 _ . Some experts say that women will become more effective managers than men because they have the power to reach common goals in a way that traditional 58 _ managers cannot.
A recent trend has been to encourage employees to use their own initiative, to make decisions on their own without 59 _ managers first. This empowerment (授权) has been part of the trend towards downsizing: 60 _ the number of management layers in companies. After de-layering in this way, a company may be 61 _ with just a top level of senior managers, front-line managers and employees with direct contact with the public. Empowerment takes the idea of delegation (委托) much further than has 62 _ been the case. Empowerment and delegation mean new forms of management control to 63 _ that the overall business plan is being followed, and that operations become more profitable under the new organization, rather than less.
Another trend is off-site or 64 _ management, where teams of people linked by e-mail and the Internet work on projects from their own houses. Project managers evaluate the 65 _
of the team members in terms of what they produce for projects, rather than the amount of time they spend on them.
Directions: Complete the following passage by using the words in the box. Each word can only be used once. Note that there is one word more than you need.
Golden Rules of Good Design
What makes good design? Over the years, designers and artists have been trying to 41 _ the essentials of good design. They have found that some sayings can help people understand the ideas of good design. There are four as follows.
Less is more. This saying is associated with the German-born architect Mies van der Rohe. In his Modernist view, beauty lies in simplicity and elegance, and the aim of the designer is to create solutions to problems through the most efficient means. Design should avoid unnecessary 42 _
More is not a bore. The American-born architect Robert Venturi concluded that if simplicity is done badly, the result is 43 _ design. Post-Modernist designers began to 44 _ with decoration and color again. Product design was heavily influenced by this view and can be seen in kitchen 45 _ such as ovens and kettles.
Fitness for purpose. Successful product design takes into consideration a product’s function, purpose, shape, form, color, and so on. The most important result for the user is that the product does what is 46 _ . For example, think of a(n) 47 _ desk lamp. It needs to be constructed from materials that will stand the heat of the lamp and regular adjustments by the user. It also needs to be stable. Most importantly, it needs to 48 _ light where it is needed.
From follows emotion. This phrase is associated with the German designer Hartmut Esslinger. He believes design must take into 49 _ the sensory side of our nature—sight, smell, touch and taste. These are as important as rational(理性的). When choosing everyday products such as toothpaste, we appreciate a cool-looking device that allows us to easily 50 _ the toothpaste onto our brush.
Is there link between humans and climatechange or not? This question was first studied in the early 1900s. Since then,many scientists have thought that our actions do make a difference. In 1997,the Kyoto Protocol explained our role in the Earth’s changing atmosphere andset international limits for gas emissions(排放) from 2008 to 2012. Somecountries have decided to continue these reductions until 2020. More recently,the Paris Agreement, stuck by nearly 200 countries, also aims to limit globalwarming. But just now how much warmer it will get depends on how deeplycountries cut carbon emissions.
70. It can be concluded from paragraph 1 that _______.
71. If nations could only keep the initial promises of the Paris Agreement, what would happen by the year 2100?
72. If those island nations not far above sea level are to survive, the maximum temperature rise, since the start of the industrial age, should be_______.
One early morning, I went into the livingroom to find my mother reading a thick book called Best Loved Poems to Read Again and Again. My interest was arousedonly by the fact that the word “Poems” appeared in big, hot pink letters.
“Isit good?” I asked her.
“Yeah,”she answered. “There’s one I really like and you’ll like it, too.” I leanedforward.
“‘Patty Poem,’” she read the title. Who is Patty?I wondered. The poem began:
She never puts hertoys away,
Just leaves them scattered① where they lay,… ①散乱的
The poem was just three short sections. The final one came quickly:
When she grows and gathers poise②, ②稳重
I’ll miss her harum-scarum③ noise, ③莽撞的
And look in vain④ for scattered toys. ④徒劳地
And I’ll be sad.
Aterrible sorrow washed over me. Whoever Patty was, she was a mean girl. Then,the shock.
“It’syou, honey,” My mother said sadly.
Tomy mother, the poem revealed a parent’s affection when her child grows up andleaves. To me, the “she” in the poem was horror. It was my mama who would besad. It was so terrible I burst out crying.
“What’swrong?” my mother asked.
“OhMama,” I cried. “I don’t want to grow up ever!”
Shesmiled. “Honey, it’s okay. You’re not growing up anytime soon. And when you do,I’ll still love you, okay?”
“Okay,”I was still weeping. My panic has gone. But I could not help thinking aboutthat silly poem. After what seemed like a safe amount of time, I read the poemagain and was confused. It all fit so well together, like a puzzle. Thelanguage was simple, so simple I could plainly understand its meaning, yet itwas still beautiful. I was now fascinated by the idea of poetry, words that hadthe power to make or break a person’s world.
Ihave since fallen in love with other poems, but “Patty Poem” remains my poem.After all, “Patty Poem” gave me my love for poetry not because it was the poemthat lifted my spirits, but because it was the one that hurt me the most.
66. Why was the writer attracted by the book Best Loved Poems to Read Again and Again?
67. After her mother read the poem to her, the writer felt ______ at first.
68. The writer’s mother liked to read “Patty Poem” probably because______.
69. It can be concluded from the passage that“Patty Poem”leads the writer to _______.
Enough “meaningless drivel”. That’s the message from a group of members of the UK government who have been examining how social media firms like LinkedIn gather and use social media data.
The House of Commons Science and Technology Committee’s report, released last week, has blamed firms for making people sign up to long incomprehensible legal contracts and calls for an international standard or kitemark (认证标记) to identify sites that have clear terms and conditions.
“The term and conditions statement that we all carelessly agree to is meaningless drivel to anyone,” says Andrew Miller, the chair of the committee. Instead, he says, firms should provide a plain-English version of their terms. The simplified version would be checked by a third party and awarded a kitemark if it is an accurate reflection of the original.
It is not yet clear who would administer the scheme, but the UK government is looking at introducing it on a voluntary basis. “we need to think through how we make that work in practice,” says Miller.
Would we pay any more attention to a kitemark? “I think if you went and did the survey, people would like to think they would,” says Nigel Shadbolt at the University of Southampton, UK, who studies open data. “We do know people worry a lot about the inappropriate use of their information.” But what would happen in practice is another matter, he says.
Other organisations such as banks ask customers to sign long contracts they may not read or understand, but Miller believes social media requires special attention because it is so new. “We still don’t know how significant the long-term impact is going to be of unwise things that kids put on social media that come back and bite them in 20 years’ time,” he says.
Shadbolt, who gave evidence to the committee, says the problem is that we don’t know how companies will use our data because their business models and uses of data are still evolving. Large collections of personal information have become valuable only recently, he says.
The shock and anger when a social media firm does something with data that people don’t expect, even if users have apparently permission, show that the current situation isn’t working. If properly administered, a kitemark on terms and conditions could help people know what exactly they are signing up to. Although they would still have to actually read them.
73. What does the phrase “ meaningless drivel” in paragraphs 1 and 3 refer to?
74. It can be inferred from the passage that Nigel Shadbolt doubts whether _______.
75. Andrew Miller thinks social media needs more attention than banks mainly because _______.
76. The writer advises users of social media to _______.
77. Which of the following is the best title of the passage?
Directions: Read the passage carefully. Then answer the questions or complete the statements in the fewest possible words.
Walking will be banned on escalators as part of a trail designed to reduce congestion(拥堵) at some of the country’s busiest stations.
In the first move of its kind, all travelers will be forced to stand on both sides of escalators on the London Underground as part of a plan to increase capacity(容量) at the height of the rush hour.
A xix-month trial will be introduced at Holborn station from mid-April, eliminating the rule of standing on the right and walking on the left. The move, imitating a similar structure in Far eastern cities such as Hong Kong, is designed to increase the number of people using long escalators at the busiest times . it could be expanded across the Tube network in coming years.
According to London Underground, only 40 percent of travelers walk the full length of long escalators, leaving the majority at the bottom as they wait to get on to the “standing “side.
A three-week trial at Holborn last year found that the number of people using escalators at any time of could be raised by almost a third. Peter McNaught, operations director at London Underground, said: “It may not seem right that you can go quicker by standing still, but our experiments at Holborn have proved that it can be true. This new six-month trial will help us find out if we can influence customers to stand on both sides in the long term.”
Holborn has one of the longest sets of escalators on the Underground network at 23.4 high. Tube bosses claim that capacity was limited because so few people wanted to walk up—meaning only one side was used at all times. Research has shown that it is more effective use of escalators over 18.5 to ban walking.
The previous trial found that escalators at the station normally carried 2,500 people between 8:30am and 9:30am on a typical day, rising to 3,250 during the researching period.
In the new trial, which will be launched from April 18, one of three “up” escalators will be standing only, with a second banning walking at peak times. A third will remain a mix of walking and standing.
(Note: Answering the questions the questions or complete the statements in NO MORE THAN TEN WORDS.)
78. What is the existing problem with standing on the right and walking on the left?
79. What did last year’s three-week trial at Holborn station prove?
80.The research suggests that walking should be forbidden on escalators that are at least _________ in height.
81. In the new trail, in addition to one escalator banning walking in rush hours, the other “up” escalators will be used for_________________.
Directions: Translate the following sentences into English, using the words given in the brackets.
86. 我阿姨苦读四年之后获得了文凭，那一刻她欣喜万分。（The moment…）
Directions: Write an English compositionin 120–150 words according to the instructions given below in Chinese.