• 英语 普陀区2017年高三第一次调研考试
简答题(综合题) 本大题共70分。简答应写出文字说明、证明过程或演算步骤。
1

Directions Fill in each blank with a proper word chosen from the box. Each word can be used only once. Note that there is one word more than you need.

Could It Be a Work by Rembrandt(伦勃朗)

Rembrandt is the most famous of the seventeenth-century Dutch painters.

However, there are _ 31___ whether some paintings attributed (归属)to

Rembrandt were actually painted by him. One such painting is known as attributed to Rembrandt because of its style, and indeed the representation of the woman’s face is very much like that of portraits known to be by Rembrandt. But

there are problems with the painting that___ 32____ it could not be a work by

Rembrandt.

First, there is something inconsistent (不一致) about the way the woman in

the___ 33__ is dressed. She is wearing a white linen cap of a kind that only

servants would wear—-yet the coat she is wearing has a__ 34___ fur collar that no servant could

afford. Rembrandt, who was known for his attention to the details of his subjects' clothing, would not have been      35_______ of such an inconsistency.

Second, Rembrandt was a master of painting light and_____ 36___ , but in this painting these

elements do not fit together. The face appears to be illuminated(照亮)by light_ 37_____ onto it

from below. But below the face is the dark fur collar, which would absorb light rather than reflect it. So the face should appear partially in shadow, which is not how it appears. Rembrandt would never have made such an error.

Finally, examination of the back of the painting___ 38__ that it was painted on a panel made

of several pieces of wood ___39___ together. Although Rembrandt often painted on wood panels (面板)s no painting known to be by Rembrandt was painted in this way.

For these reasons, the painting was__ 40__ from the official catalog of Rembrandt’s paintings

in the 1930s.

31.

32.

33.

34.

35.

36.

37.

38.

39.

40.

分值: 10分 查看题目解析 >
1

Directions For each blank in the following passage there are four words or phrases marked A, B, C and D. Fill in each blank with the word or phrase that best fits the context.

A Question of Judgment

Human beings are, in principle, poor at considering background information when making individual decisions. At first glance, this might seem like a strength that __41__ people the ability to make judgments which are independent of __42__ factors. But in a world of quotas(配额)and limits—__43___, the world in which most professional people operate—Dr. Simonsohn reported in Psychological Science that it was actually a weakness since an inability to consider the big picture was leading decision-makers to be biased(有偏见)by the daily samples they were working with. For example, he supposed that a judge fearful of appearing too soft on crime might be more likely to send someone to prison ___44___ he had already sentenced five or six other defendants(被告)only to forced community service on that day.

To __45_ this idea, Dr. Simonsohn. and his assistants turned their attention to the university-admissions process. Admissions officers interview hundreds of applicants every year, at a rate of 4% a day, and can offer entry to about 40% of them. In theory, the ___46__ of an applicant should not depend on the few others ___47__ randomly for interview during the same day, but Dr. Simonsohn suspected the truth was otherwise.

He studied the results of 9,323 MBA interviews ___48___ by 31 admissions officers. The interviewers had rated applicants on a scale of one to five. This scale ___49___ numerous factors, including communication skills, personal drive, team-working ability and personal accomplishments, into consideration. The scores from this rating were ___50___ used in conjunction with an applicant's score on the GMAT, a standardized exam which is __51___ out of 800 points, to make a decision on whether to accept him or her.

Dr. Simonsohn found if the score of the previous candidate in a daily series of interviewees was 0.75 points or more higher than that of the one _52_ that, then the score for the next applicant would __53__ by an average of 0.075 points. This might sound small, but to reverse the effects of such a decrease, a candidate would need 30 more GMAT points than would otherwise have been necessary.

As for why people behave this way, Dr. Simonsohn proposes that after accepting a number of strong candidates, interviewers might form the illogical expectation that a __54__ candidate “is due”. Regardless of the reason, if this sort of thinking proves to have a similar effect on the judgments of those in other fields, such as law and medicine, it could be responsible for far worse things than the __55__ of qualified business-school candidates.

【语篇导读】本文是一篇科学研究。主要讲述了Simonsohn博士认为法官在判案时会把主观因素加入进去。为证明自己的论断,他对MBA学生的录取过程进行了研究。研究证明面试官形成了对候选人不合逻辑的预期,这导致录取过程不够客观。

41.

Agrants

Bequips

Cdenies

DDelivers

42.

Aminor

Bexternal

Ccrucial

DObjective

43.

Aabove all

Bnot to mention

Con the whole

Din other words

44.

Aif

Buntil

Cthough

DUnless

45.

Atest

Bemphasize

Cshare

DPromote

46.

Adecision

Bquality

Cstatus

DSuccess

47.

Afound

Bstudied

Cchosen

DIdentified

48.

Ainspired

Bexpressed

Cconducted

DSecured

49.

Aput

Bgot

Ctook

DGave

50.

Ainstead

Bthen

Cever

DRather

51.

Aselected

Bpassed

Cmarked

DIntroduced

52.

Abelow

Bafter

Cabove

DBefore

53.

Ajump

Bfloat

Cflow

DDrop

54.

Astronger

Bweaker

Cbetter

DWorse

55.

Arejection

Breception

Creputation

DRecreation

分值: 15分 查看题目解析 >
1

Directions Read the following three passages. Each passage is followed by several questions or unfinished statements. For each of them there are four choices marked A, B, C and D. Choose the one that fits best according to the information given in the passage you have just read.

(A).

Roald Dahl - the author who entertained people with classics like Matilda, Charlie and the Chocolate Factory and James and the Giant Peach - would have been 100 years old this year. Roald Dahl is most famous for the books he wrote for children, but he also wrote novels and short stories for adults, screenplays, and non-fiction, too!

Roald Dahl was born near Cardiff, in Wales in 1916. His parents were from Norway, and they named him after Roald Amundsen, the famous Norwegian explorer. Roald was sent off to boarding school when he was only nine years old. He was very homesick, and had a hard time obeying the strict teachers and the headmaster. In those days, teachers would sometimes hit their students with a cane (藤条)when they misbehaved. This naturally made a lot of children very afraid of their teachers! Later on, Roald integrated this fear and distrust of adults into many of his children's books.

During World War II, Roald joined the Royal Air Force and flew missions over Africa, the Mediterranean, and the Middle East. At one point, his plane crashed in the Libyan Desert. He was temporarily blinded, and stranded in the middle of nowhere with a cracked skull and a broken nose. Fortunately, he was rescued, and within a few months had made a complete recovery. After his injuries forced him to leave the Air Force, Roald began writing. His first published piece was a magazine article about his plane crash. During the 1950s, he became an accomplished writer of short stories for adults. These stories usually featured mystery, suspense, and a twist ending.

In 1961, Roald published James and the Giant Peach, which tells the story of a young boy who attempts to escape from his two nasty, abusive aunts. The boy finally gets away by sailing across the ocean inside a magical. giant peach and befriends the giant bugs that live inside it. James and the Giant Peach was prompted by the bedtime stories Roald would make up for his young daughters. He said that it was a challenge to keep them interested and attentive--- he had to make his stories funny, exciting, and original. In 1964, he wrote his most famous book--- Charlie and the Chocolate Factory, in which a poor boy wins a “golden ticket” to tour a mysterious world.

56.    How did Roald Dahl’s experiences in World War II influence his later writing?

AHe was a pilot, and his first publication was about a plane crash.

BHe was in Navy, and his first publication dealt with life aboard a ship.

CHe was in the Army, and his first publication was set in Nazi-occupied Europe.

DHe worked in a military factory, and his first publication was about factory life.

57. Many of Roald Dahl’s children’s stories were inspired by___ .

Aa vacation he took with his grandparents

Bhis relationship with his parents

Chis time in the military

Dhis time away at boarding school

58. What led Roald Dahl to write James and the Giant Peach?

AHis lifelong love of peaches.

BThe bedtime stories he told his daughters.

CThe insects he found in his garden.

DThe cruelty he experienced at the hands of his aunts.

59. Which of these statements is an opinion about Roald Dahl?

AHe was the greatest children's author of the 20th century.

BHe published more than a dozen books for children.

CJames and the Giant Peach was his first book for children.

DSeveral of his books were adapted into successful movies.

分值: 8分 查看题目解析 >
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(B)

*Price per person, per package, twin share

Children 11 years and under are 50%. Children 4 years and under are free.

60. Which holiday location doesn’t welcome young children?

AMountain Lodge.

BB. Pelican Resort.

CCedar Lodge.

DNone of the above.

61. According to the holiday advertisement, which of the following is NOT TRUE?

ABoth Mountain Lodge and Pelican Resort are close to the coast.

BTourists can't visit Pelican Resort in May because of the restoration.

CAll meals are included if tourists choose to go to the Pelican Resort.

DCanoeing and cycling are provided at no extra cost at Cedar Lodge.

62. A holiday in Mountain Lodge for a couple with 12-year-old twin girls and a 3-year-old boy costs

A$825

BB. $990

C$1320

D$1650

分值: 6分 查看题目解析 >
1

(C)

France, which prides itself as the global innovator of fashion, has decided its fashion industry has lost an absolute right to define physical beauty for woman. Its lawmakers gave preliminary (初步) approval last week to a law that would make it a crime to employ ultra-thin models on catwalks. The parliament also agreed to ban websites that advocate “excessive thinness” by promoting extreme dieting.

Such measures have a couple of uplifting motives. They suggest beauty should not be defined by looks that end up with impinging on health. That’s a start. And the ban on ultra-thin models seems to go beyond protecting models from starving themselves to health, as some have done. It tells the fashion industry that it must take responsibility for the signal it sends to women, especially teenage girls, about the social standard they must use to determine their individual worth.

The bans, if fully enforced, would suggest to woman (and many men) that they should not let others be judges of their beauty. And perhaps faintly, they hint that people should look to other qualities like character and intellect rather than dieting their way to size zero or wasp-waist (黄蜂腰体型).

The French measures, however, rely too much on severe punishment to change a culture that still regards beauty as skin-deep and bone-showing. Under the law, using a fashion model that does not meet a government-defined index of body mess could result in a $85,000 fine and six months in prison.

The fashion industry knows it has an inherent problem in focusing on material decoration and idealized body types. In Denmark, the United States, and a few other countries, it is trying to set voluntary standard for models and fashion images that rely more on peer pressure for enforcement.

In contrast to France’s actions, Denmark’s fashion industry agreed last month on rules and punishments regarding age, health, and other characteristics of models. The newly revised Danish Fashion    Ethical Charter (伦理准则)dearly states: “We are aware of and take responsibility for the

impact the fashion industry has on body ideals, especially on young people.^

Relying on ethical persuasion rather than law to address the misuse of body ideals may be the best step. Even better would be to help elevate concepts of beauty beyond the material standards of a particular industry.

【语篇导读】本文是一篇议论文,主要探讨了法国时尚行业的新规,这些新规旨在改变人们对于美的定义,不再以节食瘦身为美。丹麦和美国也采取了相应的措施,文章最后提出利用伦理说服比使用法律更加适合,帮助评估美的概念比某一行业的物质价值更有意义。

63. According to the first paragraph, what would happen in France?

APhysical beauty would be redefined.

BNew catwalks would be constructed.

CWebsites about dieting would boom.

DThe fashion industry would decline.

64. The phrase “impinging on”(Line2, Para2) is closest in meaning to____ .

Aincreasing the value of

Bindicating the state of

Closing faith in

Ddoing harm to

65. Which of the following is TRUE of the fashion industry?

AThe French measures have already failed.

BNew standards are being set in Denmark.

CModels are no longer under peer pressure.

DIts inherent problems are getting worse.

66. Which of the following may be the best title of the text?

AJust Another Struggle for Beauty

BA Prospect for the Starving Models in France

CA Challenge to the Fashion Industry’s Body Ideals

DThreats to the Fashion Industry

分值: 8分 查看题目解析 >
1

Directions: Read the passage carefully. Fill in each blank with a proper sentence given in the box. Each sentence can be used only once. Note that there are two more sentences than you need.

In 2009, the number of hungry people in the world reached one billion for the first time. It's difficult not to be shocked by the fact that more than one in seven people in the world do not have enough to eat. __67__ Hunger kills more people per year than diseases such as AIDS, malaria (症疾)and TB(肺结核)combined.

The UN estimates that almost two thirds of the world's hungry people are in Asia, which is of course the world's most populous continent. __68__ Although this region has a much lower population than Asia, it has the highest percentage of hungry people. Almost all of the rest are in Latin America, North Africa and the Caribbean. In the richest regions of the world there are only a tiny number of people who don't have enough to eat.

__69__ They include wars, droughts, floods, and the over-use of farming land. All these factors affect food production. Many people also blame greedy businessmen for pushing up the prices of basic foods in the global market. But the most important reason, quite simply, is poverty, which has increased recently due to the financial crisis of 2008.

Although many people make the obvious point that there would be less hunger if the global population were smaller, few people would argue that there is not enough food to go around. The basic problem seems to be not a lack of food, but its distribution. In the last 50 years, global food production has risen even more quickly than the global population. There are many areas of the world in which people generally have more than enough food. __70__ The answer to world hunger, therefore, may be a balanced food distribution around the whole world. Everyone will have enough to eat, but not overeat.

【语篇导读】本文是一篇议论文。本文首先描述了世界范围内饥饿问题的现状,然后探讨了造成这种问题的原因,一方面是由于食物缺乏,另一方面是由于食物分配。

67.

68.

69.

70.

分值: 8分 查看题目解析 >
1

Directions: Translate the following sentences into English, using the words given in the brackets.

More than a quarter are in sub-Saharan Africa

72.      三轮激烈的电视辩论之后,Trump当选为美国总统。(elect)

73.      无论多忙,我们都应该花点时间锻炼身体。(spend)

74.      手机在人们日常生活中起着如此重要的作用,没有人敢不带手机去旅行。(So...)

75.      最近上映的这部电影旨在唤起公众对于边防警察的关注,他们冒着生命危险,不惜一切代价捍卫国家尊严。(concern)

分值: 15分 查看题目解析 >
翻译题 本大题共10分。
1

Teaching Is “One of the Least Popular Jobs in the UK”

The UK government has just published a report on the future of secondary school teaching, and the conclusion of the report is that many secondary schools now face great difficulties in finding people who want to be teachers. Since the 1980s, the number of graduates who would “seriously consider” teaching as a career has fallen sharply, from 64% in 1982 to just 17% today. The report suggests that urgent action needs to be taken in order to encourage more intelligent young graduates into teaching.

The main drawback(缺点)of secondary teaching, according to the report, is the low salary. Earnings in teaching are much lower than in many other jobs. Joanne Manners, 24, is a good example: “I graduated in maths last year, and I was thinking of doing a teacher-training course to become a maths teacher---but I saw I could earn twice as much if I worked in marketing or advertising, so I decided not to become a teacher.”

It's not just about the money, however. The survey concluded that another reason why people donn’t want to be teachers is that some teenagers behave very badly in school. A lot of schools have problems with discipline, and it seems clear that children do not have the same respect for teachers as in the past. Here’s the view of Dave Hallam, an accountant from London: “I think parents are to blame. They should have stricter rules with their children at home and also teach their children to have more respect for teachers.”

The report is clear that the problem of teacher shortage is a very serious one. It says that the government should raise teachers’ pay significantly, to catch up with workers in other professions. It also indicates that the government could launch a nationwide publicity campaign, with some advertisements on TV and in the newspapers, to show the positive sides of teaching to young people.

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书面表达 本大题共25分。
1

Directions: Write an English composition in 120-150 words according to the instructions given below in Chinese.

学校学生广播台正在酝酿改版,拟从现有的三个栏目(科学技术、兴趣爱好、文学艺术) 中去除一个,并从三个备选栏目(旅行、环保、健身)中挑选一个纳入该电台节目。假设你是该校学生李华,给校广播台长写一封电子邮件,表达你的观点。邮件须包括以下内容:

1.     你建议去除的栏目及去除的理由;

2.      你建议增加的栏目及增加的理由。



分值: 25分 查看题目解析 >
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