Infant Day Care, Good or Bad?
The British psychoanalyst John Bowlby maintains that separation from the parents during the sensitive “attachment” period from birth to three may influence a child’s personality and lead to emotional problems in later life. Some people have drawn the conclusion from Bowlby’s work _______ children should not be sent to day care before the age of three because of the parental separation __________ involves, and many people do believe this. But there are also arguments __________ such a strong conclusion.
Firstly, experts point out that the isolated love affair between children and parents __________ (find) in modern societies does not usually exist in traditional societies. For example, in some tribal societies, such as the Ngoni, the father and mother of a child did not raise their infant alone – far from it. Secondly, common sense tells us that day care would not be so widespread today _________ parents and care-takers found children had problems with it. Statistical studies of this kind have not yet been carried out, and they have regularly reported that day care had a slightly positive effect on children’s development. But tests _________ have been used to measure this development are not widely enough accepted to settle the issue.
But Bowlby’s analysis raises the possibility that early day care has delayed effects. The possibility that such care might lead to, say, more mental illness or crime 15 or 20 years later can only be explored by the use of statistics. Whatever the long-term effects, parents sometimes find the immediate effects difficult__________ (deal) with. Children under three are likely to protest at __________ (leave) their parents and show unhappiness. At the age of three or three and a half almost all children find the change to nursery easy, and this is undoubtedly _________ more and more parents make use of child care at this time. The matter, then, is far from clear-cut, though experience and available evidence _____ (indicate) early care is reasonable for infants.
First Aid: Difference between Death and Life
First aid is emergency care for a victim of sudden illness or injury until more skillful medical treatment is available. It may save a life or improve certain _______ signs including pulse, temperature, and breathing. First aid must be _______ as quickly as possible. In the case of the critically injured, a few minutes can make the difference between complete recovery and loss of life.
First-aid ______ depend upon a victim’s needs and the provider’s level of knowledge and skill. Knowing what not to do in an emergency is as nt as knowing what to do. For example, _______ moving a person with a neck injury can lead to permanent health problems.
Despite the variety of injuries possible, several ______ of first aid apply to all emergencies. The first step is to call for professional medical help. The victim, if conscious, should be reassured that medical aid has been requested, and asked for permission to provide any first aid. Next, _______ the scene, asking other people or the injured person’s family or friends about details of the injury or illness, any care that may have already been given, and ______ conditions such as heart trouble. Unless the accident scene becomes unsafe or the victim may suffer further injury, do not move the victim.
First aid requires rapid assessment of victims to determine whether ______ conditions exist. One method for _______ a victim’s condition is known by the acronym ABC, which stands for:
A – Airway: is it open and clear?
B – Breathing: is the person breathing? Look, listen and feel for breathing.
C – Circulation: is there a pulse? Is the person bleeding _______? Check skin color and temperature for
additional indications of circulation problems.
Every conscious being has interests that should be respected. No being who is conscious of being alive should be devalued to thinghood, dominated, and used as a resource or _______. The key point of the idea known as animal rights is a movement to extend moral consideration to all ______ beings. Nobody should have to demonstrate a specific level of intelligence or be judged beautiful to be given moral consideration. No being should have to be useful to humanity or capable of accepting “duties” in order to be extended moral consideration. _______, what other animals need from us is being free from duties to us.
Animal rights is about letting animals live on their own terms. It can be written into our laws, but is not an actual list or bill of rights as we have for human society. It begins with our promises not to act like _______ of others. Animal rights is about justice ─ treating animals fairly.
Why is animal rights ____ ___? It is because we humans often act as though we are the only beings on the planet. Although we depend on other animals for our very survival, humans are the only animals that have upset the balance of nature. There are lots of ways that humans _______ animals. We domesticate them and use them for food, even though our nutritional needs can be completely supplied by a(n) ______ diet. Although other materials are available, we use animal’s skin and other body parts for clothing, furs, hats, boots, jewellery and even pet toys. Humans can talk about it but animals cannot. All animals wish to experience life in its fullness. Unlike many animals who have to kill to survive, humans do not. Why should humans cause _______ to other beings when it’s not necessary?
As we do, animals protect their children; they feel fear; they warn each other of dangers; they play. We might differ from other animals in some ways, but that doesn’t give us the right to _______ them down, take their lands, pollute their waters, or use them for our conveniences. Animals also experience pain and it’s not difficult to observe ______ of pain in the way a conscious being reacts to it. We take advantage, cause distress, and act _______ when we use animals for amusement. Lots of pets are ______ on the streets when their owners no longer find it convenient or affordable to keep or care for them.
Whether we admit it or not, it’s a prejudice to think we are _______ to animals and that it is our right to control them, which can only make people act mean, hateful or neglectful. However, each of us has within us the power to _______. We can adopt a different attitude, one that reshape our destiny. This will have wonderful effects on the planet’s other communities, for life is _______ avoiding suffering. It is interacting, singing, pursuing joy. We humans can learn to live responsibly, with respect, kindness and love.
Would You Bully(欺负) a Driverless Car or Show It Respect?
Say you’re driving down a two-way street and there’s a truck unloading a delivery in the opposite lane. The oncoming traffic needs to pull out into your lane to overtake.
What do you do?
_______ Eventually one of us feels charitable and slows down to allow the oncoming car to overtake and give permission with a quick flash of headlights or a wave of the hand.
But what if the car waiting patiently behind the parked truck is a driverless or autonomous vehicle (AV)? Will this robot car be able to understand what you mean when you flash your lights or wave your hands?
Its sensors could decide that it’s only safe to overtake when there’s no oncoming traffic at all. On a busy road at school home time, this may be never, leading to increasingly angry drivers queuing behind. _______ This is one of the conclusions to be drawn from research carried out by Dr Chris Tennant of the psychological and behavioural science department at the London School of Economics.
His Europe-wide survey finds that nearly two-thirds of drivers think machines won’t have enough common sense to interact with human drivers, and more than two-fifths think a robot car would remain stuck behind our assumed parked truck for a long time.
Driving isn’t just about technology and engineering, it’s about human interactions and psychology. The road is a social space. ______ “If you view the road as a social space, you will consciously negotiate your journey with other drivers. People who like that negotiation process appear to feel less comfortable engaging with AVs than with human drivers,” says Mr Tennant in his report.
_______ A statistic often trotted out(动不动就搬出) is that human error is responsible for more than 90% of accidents, with our tendency to road anger, tiredness and lack of concentration.
①What does it say about the future of meat when the country’s largest processor of chicken, pork, and beef buys a stake(股份) in a start-up that aims to “perfectly replace animal protein with plant protein”?
②Tyson Foods announced this week that it purchased a 5 percent stake in Beyond Meat, the Southern California-based food-tech start-up that made headlines earlier this year with its veggie burger that reportedly cooks and tastes like real beef.
③To be sure, Beyond Meat’s meatless creations have yet to take the country by storm. Although the 100 percent plant-based burgers have achieved plenty of positive press since they appeared for the first time in May, so far they’re only available at Whole Foods stores in seven states. Even though the company’s “chicken” strips, “beef” pies, and meatless frozen dinners are available nationwide, Beyond Meat is hardly a household name.
④That may be what makes the news of Tyson’s investment all the more noteworthy. While the two companies declined to give details about the deal, it’s doubtful that Tyson’s 5 percent stake made much of dent(凹陷) in the meat giant’s coffers(金库). The company posted $41.4 billion in sales last year; prior to the deal with Tyson, Beyond Meat had reportedly raised $64 million in project capital funding—about what Tyson earns before lunch on any given day.
⑤Tyson is doing pretty great. The company reported record third-quarter earnings per share in August and says that it expects overall meat production to increase 2 to 3 percent during the next financial year. But like a big oil company shelling out cash to invest in wind power, Tyson’s toe-in-the-water move to team up with a start-up devoted to bringing more plant-based protein to American dinner tables seems to suggest the meat industry is starting to see which way the winds are blowing.
⑥Sales of plant-based protein, which totaled an estimated $5 billion last year, continue to pale compared with the market for meat in America—but vegetarian alternatives to meat are booming, with sales growing at more than double the rate for food products overall. The steady drumbeat of news about the negative health impacts, environmental problems, and animal welfare concerns associated with meat consumption appears to be sinking in. According to a survey released in April, more than half of Americans surveyed said they plan to eat more plant-based foods in the coming year.
63. Beyond Meat’s veggie burger made headlines probably because __________.
64. Which of the following statements is TRUE regarding the state of Beyond Meat?
65. What can we infer from paragraph 4?
66. What does the passage mainly talk about?
Explore Stewart Island and the surrounding bays in our modern mini-buses. Our guides enjoy sharing their local knowledge of the history and environment of Stewart Island. Highlights include Lee Bay, the gateway to Rakiura National Park, beautiful Horseshoe Bay and amazing views of Paterson Inlet from Observation Rock.
· More information
· Departure location: Oban Visitor Centre.
· What to bring: Comfortable walking shoes or boots, waterproof jacket, warm sweater or fleece jacket, sunscreen or sunglasses, insect repellent and camera.
· Car parking: Vehicle parking is available at Oban (extra cost—reservations recommended).
· Wheelchair access: Available.
· Children ticket: Children under ten go free for travel as long as they are accompanied by an adult.
· “There was so much to see and learn that it was hard to take everything in. The bays we stopped at were beautiful with golden sandy beaches, the forests were overpowering and we expected dinosaurs to appear at any time, the views from lookout point were splendid and the anchor point with Bluff brought a smile. Thank you to Chris and the experienced team for such an informative tour.”
· “Any visitor to Stewart Island could do no better than take one of the guided tours from the Oban Visitor Centre—especially if you only have limited time available. We had the delightful and extremely informative Kylie conduct a small number on one of the village tours. This is a beautiful place—a few fascinating shops and restaurants, wonderful walks and warm and friendly people.”
· “I love finding out about places and the guide was full of information and stories as we visited every interesting place and view in Oban (it didn’t take too long...). A great way to start a visit as it helps you know where everything is.”
60.If a traveler plans to leave a car at Oban, he had better ________.
61. Herry, a six-year-old boy, wanted to have a sightseeing of the Stewart Island with his parents. How much should they pay for the mini-bus tour?
62. If a traveler takes the guided tour, he can experience all the following EXCEPT ________.
①Did English football finally find a new star? At the age of 19, Theo Walcott came onto the scene by scoring a hat-trick for England in a 4-1 victory over Croatia in 2010 World Cup.
②Walcott’s lightning speed and accurate shooting turned the teenager into an overnight star. Many thought he was a new dawn for the England team. He was building his fame for his fast pace, with former Barcelona manager Pep declaring that “you would need a gun to stop him.” FIFA World Player of the Year winner Lionel Messi once also described Walcott as “one of the most dangerous players I have ever played against.” In addition to his speed, Walcott also possessed good balance, movement and technique.
③It was symbolic that Walcott’s goals came from the right-wing. The position had been played by “golden boy” David Beckham for more than 10 years. No longer were the cheers for Beckham. The fans’ hopes now rested on the shoulders of Walcott.
④Walcott was born in London to a black British Jamaican father and a white English mother. He grew up as a Liverpool fan due to his father’s support of Liverpool. When Chelsea asked him to be a ball boy, he used the opportunity to meet his Liverpool idols.
⑤The teenager’s rise to fame was not completely out of blue. He was part of England’s World Cup team in 2006, but he did not get to play a match. He also spent over two years at Arsenal, where he was fast becoming a key player.
⑥But that year, few were expecting the wonderful performance between England and Croatia. The teenager was the first England player to score three goals in a game since Michael Owen did so seven years before.
⑦Although England was full of superstars, they had a poor record in major tournaments. But things were beginning to change. The win against Croatia was sweet revenge. Croatia was the team which knocked England out of Euro 2008.
⑧Walcott’s wonderful performance lighted England fans’ hope for World Cup victory in South Africa in 2010, since England had not lifted the cup since 1966.
⑨But before England fans got too carried away, our reflection on the past history told us that placing a country’s hopes on one teenager was dangerous.
56. Which of the following CANNOT account for Walcott’s increasing fame?
57. Why did the author mention David Beckham in the 3rd paragraph?
58. In the 5th paragraph, the underlined phrase “out of blue” most probably means “________”.
59. What is the author most likely to agree with?
Super Size Me
Fast food, otherwise known as junkfood, is a huge passion for a large number of people across the Western world.But what would happen if you ate lots of junk food, every day? Would it seriouslydamage your health? These were the questions which led Morgan Spurlock, anindependent film-maker, to do an experiment, which he made into a documentaryfilm entitled Super Size Me.
The main basis of his experiment wasthat Spurlock promised to eat three McDonald’s meals a day, every day, for amonth. He could only eat food from McDonald’s and every time an employee askedif he would like to “super size” the meal, he had to agree. “Super sizing”refers to the fact that with this type of meal you get a considerable largerportion of everything.
Spurlock knew that by eating threeMcDonald’s meals a day, he would consume a lot of fat and a great deal of saltand sugar in each meal—much more than he needed. Although Spurlock knew hewould put on a bit of weight, and that this diet was unhealthy, he wasn’t quiteprepared for just how unhealthy it turned out to be. The changes in his bodywere horrifying in the first week, he put on 4.5 kilos and by the end of thethirty days he had gained nearly 14 kilos, bringing his total weight to amassive 98kg.
Spurlock says “I’d love people to walkout of the movie and say, ’Next time I’m not going to “super size”. Maybe I’mnot going have any junk food at all. I’m going to sit down and eat dinner withmy kids, with the TV off, so that we can eat healthy food, talk about whatwe’re eating and have a relationship with each other.’” Food for thoughtindeed.