From the very beginning of school we make books and reading a constant source of possible failure and public humiliation. When children are little we make them read aloud, before the teacher and other children, so that we can be sure they "know" all the words they are reading. This means that when they don't know a word, they are going to make a mistake, right in front of everyone. After having taught fifth-grade classes for four years, I decided to try at all costs to rid them of their fear and dislike of books, and to get them to read oftener and more adventurously.
One day soon after school had started, I said to them, "Now I'm going to say something about reading that you have probably never heard a teacher say before. I would like you to read a lot of books this year, but I want you to read them only for pleasure. I am not going to ask you questions to find out whether you understand the books or not. If you understand enough of a book to enjoy it and want to go on reading it, that's enough for me. Also I’m not going to ask you what words mean."
The children sat stunned and silent. Was this a teacher talking? One girl, who had just come to us from a school where she had had a very hard time, looked at me steadily for a long time after I had finished. Then, still looking at me, she said slowly and seriously, "Mr. Holt, do you really mean that?" I said just as seriously, "I mean every word of it."
During the spring she really astonished me. One day, she was reading at her desk. From a glimpse of the illustrations I thought I knew what the book was. I said to myself, "It can't be," and went to take a closer look. Sure enough, she was reading Moby Dick, in the edition with woodcuts. I said, "Don't you find parts of it rather heavy going?" She answered, "Oh, sure, but I just skip over those parts and go on to the next good part."
This is exactly what reading should be and in school so seldom is —— an exciting, joyous adventure. Find something, dive into it, take the good parts, skip the bad parts, get what you can out of it, go on to something else. How different is our mean-spirited, picky insistence that every child get every last little scrap of "understanding" that can be dug out of a book.
21. According to the passage, children's fear and dislike of books may result from ______.
22. The teacher told his students to read ______.
23. Upon hearing the teacher's talk, the children probably felt that ______.
24. Which of the following statements about the girl is TRUE according to the passage?
25. From the teacher's point of view, ______.
Graphs can be a very useful tool for conveying information, especially numbers, percentages, and other data. A graph gives the reader a picture to interpret. That can be a lot more efficient than pages and pages explaining the data.
Graphs can seem frightening, but reading a graph is a lot like reading a story. The graph has a title, a main idea, and supporting details. You can use your active reading skills to analyze and understand graphs just like any other text.
Most graphs have a few basic parts: a caption or introduction paragraph, a title, a legend or key, and labeled axes. An active reader looks at each part of the graph before trying to interpret the data. Captions will usually tell you where the data came from (for example, a scientific study of 400 African elephants from 1980 to 2005). Captions usually summarize the author's main point as well. The title is very important. It tells you the main idea of the graph by stating what kind of information is being shown. A legend, also called a key, is a guide to the symbols and colors used in the graph. Many graphs, including bar graphs and line graphs, have two axes that form a corner. Usually these axes are the left side and the bottom of the graph. Each axis will always have a label. The label tells you what each axis measures.
A bar graph has two axes and uses bars to show amounts. In Graph 1, we see that the x-axis shows grades that students earned, and the y-axis shows how many students earned each grade. You can see that 6 students earned an A because the bar for A stretches up to 6 on the vertical measurement. There is a lot of information we can get from a simple graph like this (See Graph 1).
A line graph looks similar to a bar graph, but instead of bars, it plots points and connects them with a line. It has the same parts as a bar graph - two labeled axes - and can be read the same way. To read a line graph, it's important to focus on the points of intersection rather than the line segments between the points. This type of graph is most commonly used to show how something changes over time. Here is a graph that charts how far a bird flies during the first five days of its spring migration (See Graph 2).
The unit of measurement for the x-axis is days. The unit of measurement for the y-axis is kilometers. Thus we can see that, on the first day, the pipit flew 20 kilometers. The line segment goes up between Day 1 and Day 2, which means that the bird flew farther on Day 2. If the line segment angled down, as between Day 4 and Day 5, it would mean that the bird flew fewer kilometers than the day before. This line graph is a quick, visual way to tell the reader about the bird's migration.
A typical pie graph looks like a circular pie. The circle is divided into sections, and each section represents a fraction of the data. The graph is commonly used to show percentages; the whole pie represents 100 percent, so each piece is a fraction of the whole.
A pie graph might include a legend, or it might use icons or labels within each slice. This pie graph shows one month's expenses (See Graph 3).
Movies $ 12
26. When used in a graph, a legend is_______ .
27. What is the total number of students who earned a C or better?
28. The bird covered the longest distance on_____ .
29. Which of the following cost Amy most?
In 2004, when my daughter Becky was ten, she and my husband Joe, were united in their desire for a dog. As for me, I shared none of their canine lust.
But why, they pleaded. “Because I don't have time to take care of a dog.” But we'll do it.“Really? You're going to walk the dog? Feed the dog? Bathe the dog? Yes, yes and yes. “I don't believe you.” We will. We promise.
They didn’t. From day two ( everyone wanted to walk the cute puppy that first day ), neither thought to walk the dog. While I was slow to accept that I would be the one to keep track of her shots, to schedule her vet appointments, to feed and clean her, Misty knew this on day one. As she looked up at the three new humans in her life ( small , medium , and large ), she calculated, “The medium one is the sucker in the pack.”
Quickly, she and I developed something very similar to a Vulcan mind meld (心灵融合). She’d look at me with those sad brown eyes of hers, beam her need, and then wait, trusting I would understand — which, strangely, I almost always did. In no time, she became my fifth appendage(附肢), snoring on my home-office couch as I worked, cradling against my feet as I read, and splaying across my stomach as I watched television.
Even so, part of me continued to resent walking duty. Joe and Becky had promised. “Not fair,” I'd balk (不心甘情愿地做) silently as she and I walked. "Not fair," I'd loudly remind anyone within earshot upon our return home.
Then one day — January 1, 2007, to be exact — my husband's doctor uttered an unthinkable word; leukemia (白血病). With that, I spent eight to ten hours a day with Joe in the hospital, doing anything and everything I could to ease his discomfort. During those six months of hospitalizations, Becky, 12 at the time, adjusted to other adults being in the house when she returned from school. My work colleagues adjusted to my taking off at a moment's notice for medical emergencies. Every part of my life changed; no part of my old routine remained.
Save one: Misty still needed walking. At the beginning, when friends offered to take her through her paces, I declined because I knew they had their own households to deal with.
As the months went by, I began to realize that I actually wanted to walk Misty. The walk in the morning before I headed to the hospital was a quiet, peaceful time to gather my thoughts or to just be before the day's medical drama unfolded. The evening walk was a time to shake off the day's upsets and let the worry tracks in my head go to white noise.
When serious illness visits your household, it's not just your daily routine and your assumptions about the future that are no longer familiar. Pretty much everyone you know acts differently.
Not Misty. Take her for a walk, and she had no interest in Joe’s blood counts or bone marrow test results. On the street or in the park, she had only one thing on her mind: squirrels! She was so joyous that even on the worst days, she could make me smile. On a daily basis, she reminded me that life goes on.
After Joe died in 2009, Misty slept on his pillow.
I’m grateful — to a point. The truth is, after years of balking, I’ve come to enjoy my walks with Misty. As 1 watch her chase after a squirrel, throwing her whole being into the here-and-now of an exercise that has never once ended in victory, she reminds me, too, that no matter how harsh the present or unpredictable the future, there's almost always some measure of joy to be extracted from the moment.
35. Why didn't the writer agree to raise a dog at the beginning of the story?
36. Which of the following is the closest in meaning to "The medium one is the sucker in the pack.”( Paragraph 3 ) ?
37. It can be inferred from Paragraph 3 that ______.
38. The story came to its turning point when ______.
39. Why did the writer continue to walk Misty while Joe was in hospital?
40. What is the message the writer wants to convey in the passage?
If humans were truly at home under the light of the moon and stars, we would go in darkness happily, the midnight world as visible to us as it is to the vast number of nocturnal (夜间活动的) species on this planet. Instead, we are diurnal creatures, with eyes adapted to living in the sun's light. This is a basic evolutionary fact, even though most of us don't think of ourselves as diurnal beings. Yet it's the only way to explain what we've done to the night: We've engineered it to receive us by filling it with light.
The benefits of this kind of engineering come with consequences -- called light pollution -- whose effects scientists are only now beginning to study. Light pollution is largely the result of bad lighting design, which allows artificial light to shine outward and upward into the sky. III-designed lighting washes out the darkness of night and completely changes the levels and light rhythms to which many forms of life, including ourselves, have adapted. Wherever human light spills into the natural world, some aspect of life is affected.
In most cities the sky looks as though it has been emptied of stars, leaving behind a vacant haze (霾) that mirrors our fear of the dark. We've grown so used to this orange haze that the original glory of an unlit nigh, -- dark enough for the planet Venus to throw shadow on Earth — is wholly beyond our experience, beyond memory almost.
We've lit up the night as if it were an unoccupied country, when nothing could be further from the truth. Among mammals alone, the number of nocturnal species is astonishing. Light is a powerful biological force, and on many species it acts as a magnet. The effect is so powerful that scientists speak of songbirds and seabirds being "captured" by searchlights on land or by the light from gas flares on marine oil platforms. Migrating at night, birds tend to collide with brightly lit tall buildings.
Frogs living near brightly lit highways suffer nocturnal light levels that are as much as a million times brighter than normal, throwing nearly every aspect of their behavior out of joint, including their nighttime breeding choruses. Humans are no less trapped by light pollution than the frogs. Like most other creatures, we do need darkness. Darkness is as essential to our biological welfare, to our internal clockwork, as light itself.
Living in a glare of our own making, we have cut ourselves off from our evolutionary and cultural heritage — the light of the stars and the rhythms of day and night. In a very real sense, light pollution causes us to lose sight of our true place in the universe, to forget the scale of our being, which is best measured against the dimensions of a deep night with the Milky Way the edge of our galaxy — arching overhead.
30. According to the passage, human beings ______.
31. What does "it" (Paragraph 1) most probably refer to?
32. The writer mentions birds and frogs to ______.
33. It is implied in the last paragraph that ______.
34. What might be the best title for the passage?
Since finishing my studies at Harvard and Oxford, I’ve watched one friend after another land high-ranking, high-paying Wall Street jobs. As executives (高级管理人员) with banks, consulting firms, established law firms, and major corporations, many are now _ on their way to impressive careers. By society's _ ，they seem to have it made.
On the surface, these people seem to be very lucky in life. As they left student life behind, many had a _ drink at their cheap but friendly local bar, shook hands with longtime roommates, and _ out of small apartments into high buildings. They made reservations at restaurants where the cost of a bottle of wine _ a college year's monthly rent. They replaced their beloved old cars with expensive new sports cars.
The thing is, a number of them have _ that despite their success, they aren't happy. Some _ of unfriendly coworkers and feel sad for eight-hour workweeks devoted to tasks they _ . Some do not respect the companies they work for and talk of feeling tired and _ . However, instead of devoting themselves to their work, they find themselves working to support the _ to which they have so quickly become _ .
People often speak of trying a more satisfying path, and _ in the end the idea of leaving their jobs to work for something they _ or finding a position that would give them more time with their families almost always leads them to the same conclusion: it’s _ . They have loans, bills, a mortgage (抵押贷款) to _ , retirement to save for. They recognize there’s something _ in their lives, but it's _ to step off the track.
In a society that tends to _ everything in terms of dollars and cents, we learn from a young age to consider the costs of our _ in financial terms. But what about the personal and social costs _ in pursuing money over meaning? These are exactly the kinds of costs many of us tend to ignore — and the very ones we need to consider most.
Chinese proverbs are rich and they are still widely used in Chinese people’s daily life. _ these proverbs there are often interesting stories. For example, the proverb, “plucking up a crop _ (help) it grow”, is based on the following story.
It is said that a short—tempered man in the Song Dynasty (960—1279) was very anxious to help _ rice crop grow up quickly. He was thinking about _ day and night. But the crop was growing much slower than he expected.
One day, he came up with an idea _ he would pluck up all of his crop a few inches. He did so the next day.
He was very tired _ doing this for a whole day, _ he felt very happy since the crop did “grow” _ (high).
His son heard about this and went to see the crop. Unfortunately the leaves of the crop began to wither.
This proverb is saying we have to let things go in their _ (nature) course. Being too anxious to help an event develop often _ (result) in the contrary to our intention.
My old classroom was interesting because three side of the classroom were made from glass. I enjoyed sit close to the windows and looking at the view. On the left-hand side of the class, I could easy see the football field. In the mornings, it was full of students exercising. The view from the back of the classroom is also splendid. Close to the school there was a beautiful park with many trees around them. Farther in the distance, I could not enjoy the view of snowy mountains. On the right side of the class was the road. I was always interested to see the drivers in hurry in the morning. The position of the classroom with its view made me felt like I was dreaming. If I was only a child when I studied in that classroom, I will never forget it.
在班级活动中，当你的想法与大多数同学不一致时，你是坚持自己的观点并说服别人，还是尊重大多数同学的意见? 请你以“When I Have a Different Opinion”为题，用英文写一篇100～120个词的短文。要求如下：
When I Have a Different Opinion