21. The number of smokers, _____ is reported, has dropped by 17 percent in just one year.
22. Schools should be lively places where individuals are encouraged to _____ their greatest potential.
23. —Jim, can you work this Sunday?
—________? I’ve been working for two weeks on end.
24. Much time _____ sitting at a desk, office workers are generally troubled by health problems.
25. _____ Li Bai, a great Chinese poet, was born is known to the public, but some won’t accept it.
27. The university started some new language programs to _____ the country’s Silk Road Economic Belt.
26. It is so cold that you can’t go outside _____ fully covered in thick clothes.
28. It might have saved me some trouble ______ the schedule.
29. The whole team _____ Cristiano Ronaldo , and he seldom lets them down.
32. Some schools will have to make ______ in agreement with the national soccer reform.
31. The police officers decided to conduct a thorough and _______ review of the case.
30. The real reason why prices ____ , and still are, too high is complex, and no short discussion can satisfactorily explain this problem.
33. —Why didn’t you invite John to your birthday party?
—Well, you know he’s _______ .
34. Many of the things we now benefit from would not be around _______ Thomas Edison.
35. —Go and say sorry to your Mom, Dave.
—I’d like to, but I’m afraid she won’t be happy with my ______ .
请阅读下面短文, 从短文后各题所给的 A、B、C、D 四个选项中, 选出最佳选项, 并在答题卡上将该项涂黑。
I was required to read one of Bernie Siegel’s books in college and was hooked on his positivity from that moment on. The stories of his unconventional 36 and the exceptional patients he wrote about were so 37 to me and had such a big 38 on how I saw life from then on. Who knew that so many years later I would look to Dr. Bernie and his CDs again to 39 my own cancer experience?
I’m an ambitious 40, and when I started going through chemo (化疗) , even though I ’m a very 41 person, I lost my drive to write. I was just too tired and not in the 42 . One day , while waiting to go in for 43 , I had one of Dr. Bernie’s books in my hand. Another patient 44 what I was reading and struck up a conversation with me 45 he had one of his books with him as well. It 46 that among other things, he was an eighty-year-old writer. He was47 a published author, and he was currently 48 on a new book.
We would see each other at various times and 49 friends. Sometimes he wore a duck hat, and I would tell myself, he was definitely a(n) 50 of Dr. Bernie. He really put a 51 on my face. He unfortunately 52last year due to his cancer, 53 he left a deep impression on me and gave me the 54 to pick up my pen again. I 55 t o myself, “If he can do it, then so can I.”
Suppose you become a leader in an organization. It’s very likely that you’ll want to have volunteers to help with the organization’s activities. To do so, it should help to understand why people undertake volunteer work and what keeps their interest in the work.
Let’s begin with the question of why people volunteer. Researchers have identified several factors that motivate people to get involved. For example, people volunteer to express personal values related to unselfishness, to expand their range of experiences, and to strengthen social relationships. If volunteer positions do not meet these needs, people may not wish to participate. To select volunteers, you may need to understand the motivations of the people you wish to attract.
People also volunteer because they are required to do so. To increase levels of community service, some schools have launched compulsory volunteer programs. Unfortunately, these programs can shift people’s wish of participation from an internal factor (e.g., “I volunteer because it’s important to me”) to an external factor (e.g., “I volunteer because I’m required to do so”). When that happens, people become less likely to volunteer in the future. People must be sensitive to this possibility when they make volunteer activities a must.
Once people begin to volunteer, what leads them to remain in their positions over time? To answer this question, researchers have conducted follow-up studies in which they track volunteers over time. For instance, one study followed 238 volunteers in Florida over a year. One of the most important factors that influenced their satisfaction as volunteers was the amount of suffering they experienced in their volunteer positions. Although this result may not surprise you, it leads to important practical advice. The researchers note that attention should be given to “training methods that would prepare volunteers for troublesome situations or provide them with strategies for coping with the problem they do experience”.
Another study of 302 volunteers at hospitals in Chicago focused on individual differences in the degree to which people view “volunteer” as an important social role. It was assumed that those people for whom the role of volunteer was most part of their personal identity would also be most likely to continue volunteer work. Participants indicated the degree to which the social role mattered by responding to statements such as “Volunteering in Hospital is an important part of who I am.”Consistent with the researchers’ expectations, they found a positive correlation (正相关) between the strength of role identity and the length of time people continued to volunteer. These results, once again, lead to concrete advice: “Once an individual begins volunteering, continued efforts might focus on developing a volunteer role identity.... Items like T-shirts that allow volunteers to be recognized publicly for their contributions can help strengthen role identity”.
61. People volunteer mainly out of ______ .
62. What can we learn from the Florida study?
63. What is most likely to motivate volunteers to continue their work?
64. What is the best title of the passage?
In the United States alone, over 100 million cell-phones are thrown away each year. Cell-phones are part of a growing mountain of electronic waste like computers and personal digital assistants. The electronic waste stream is increasing three times faster than traditional garbage as a whole.
Electronic devices contain valuable metals such as gold and silver. A Swiss study reported that while the weight of electronic goods represented by precious metals was relatively small in comparison to total waste, the concentration (含量) of gold and other precious metals was higher in So-called e-waste than in naturally occurring minerals.
Electronic wastes also contain many poisonous metals. Even when the machines are recycled and the harmful metals removed, the recycling process often is carried out in poor countries, in practically uncontrolled ways which allow many poisonous substances to escape into the environment.
Creating products out of raw materials creates much more waste material, up to 100 times more, than the material contained in the finished products. Consider again the cell-phone, and imagine the mines that produced those metals, the factories needed to make the box and packaging(包装) it came in. Many wastes produced in the producing process are harmful as well.
The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency notes that most waste is dangerous in that “the production, distribution, and use of products — as well as management of the resulting waste — all result in greenhouse gas release.” Individuals can reduce their contribution by creating less waste at the start — for instance, buying reusable products and recycling.
In many countries the concept of extended producer responsibility is being considered or has been put in place as an incentive (动机) for reducing waste. If producers are required to take back packaging they use to sell their products, would they reduce the packaging in the first place?
Governments’ incentive to require producers to take responsibility for the packaging they produce is usually based on money. Why, they ask, should cities or towns be responsible for paying to deal with the bubble wrap (气泡垫) that encased your television?
From the governments’ point of view, a primary goal of laws requiring extended producer responsibility is to transfer both the costs and the physical responsibility of waste management from the government and tax-payers back to the producers.
58. By mentioning the Swiss study, the author intends to tell us that _________ .
59. The responsibility of e-waste treatment should be extended_________ .
60. What does the passage mainly talk about?
Freedom and Responsibility
Freedom’s challenge in the Digital Age is a serious topic. We are facing today a strange new world and we are all wondering what we are going to do with it.
Some 2,500 years ago Greece discovered freedom. Before that there was no freedom. There were great civilizations, splendid empires, but no freedom anywhere. Egypt and Babylon were both tyrannies, one very powerful man ruling over helpless masses.
In Greece, in Athens (雅典), a little city in a little country, there were no helpless masses. And Athenians willingly obeyed the written laws which they themselves passed, and the unwritten, which must be obeyed if free men live together. They must show each other kindness and pity and the many qualities without which life would be very painful unless one chose to live alone in the desert. The Athenians never thought that a man was free if he could do what he wanted. A man was free if he was self-controlled. To make yourself obey what you approved was freedom. They were saved from looking at their lives as their own private affair. Each one felt responsible for the welfare of Athens, not because it was forced on him from the outside, but because the city was his pride and his safety. The essential belief of the first free government in the world was liberty for all men who could control themselves and would take responsibility for the state.
But discovering freedom is not like discovering computers. It cannot be discovered once for all. If people do not prize it, and work for it, it will go. Constant watch is its price. Athens changed. It was a change that took place without being noticed though it was of the extreme importance, a spiritual change which affected the whole state. It had been the Athenian’ s pride and joy to give to their city. That they could get material benefits from her never entered their minds. There had to be a complete change of attitude before they could look at the city as an employer who paid her citizens for doing her work. Now instead of men giving to the state, the state was to give to them. What the people wanted was a government which would provide a comfortable life for them; and with this as the primary object, ideas of freedom and self-reliance and responsibility were neglected to the point of disappearing. Athens was more and more looked on as a cooperative business possessed of great wealth in which all citizens had a right to share.
Athens reached the point when the freedom she really wanted was freedom from responsibility. There could be only one result. If men insisted on being free from the burden of self-dependence and responsibility for the common good, they would cease to be free. Responsibility is the price every man must pay for freedom. It is to be had on no other terms. Athens, the Athens of Ancient Greece, refused responsibility; she reached the end of freedom and was never to have it again.
But, “the excellent becomes the permanent”, Aristotle said. Athens lost freedom forever, but freedom was not lost forever for the world. A great American, James Madison, referred to: “The capacity (能力) of mankind for self-government.” No doubt he had not an idea that he was speaking Greek. Athens was not in the farthest background of his mind, but once man has a great and good idea, it is never completely lost. The Digital Age cannot destroy it. Somehow in this or that man’s thought such an idea lives though unconsidered by the world of action. One can never be sure that it is not on the point of breaking out into action only sure that it will do so sometime.
65. What does the underlined word “tyrannies” in Paragraph 2 refer to?
66. People believing in freedom are those who________ .
67. What change in attitude took place in Athens?
68. What does the sentence “There could be only one result.” in Paragraph 5 mean?
69. Why does the author refer to Aristotle and Madison?
70. What is the author’s understanding of freedom?
注意: 请将答案写在答题卡上相应题号的横线上。 每个空格只填一个单词。
People select news in expectation of a reward. This reward may be either of two kinds. One is
related to what Freud calls the Pleasure Principle, the other to what he calls the Reality Principle.
For want of better names, we shall call these two classes immediate reward and delayed reward.
In general, the kind of news which may be expected to give immediate reward are news of
crime and corruption, accidents and disasters, sports, social events, and human interest. Delayed
reward may be expected from news of public affairs, economic matters, social problems, science,
education, and health.
News of the first kind pays its rewards at once. A reader can enjoy an indirect experience
without any of the dangers or stresses involved. He can tremble wildly at an axe-murder, shake his
head sympathetically and safely at a hurricane, identify himself with the winning team, laugh
understandingly at a warm little story of children or dogs.
News of the second kind, however, pays its rewards later. It sometimes requires the reader to
tolerate unpleasantness or annoyance — as, for example, when he reads of the threatening foreign situation, the mounting national debt, rising taxes, falling market, scarce housing, and cancer. It has a kind of “threat value.” It is read so that the reader may be informed and prepared. When a reader selects delayed reward news, he pulls himself into the world of surrounding reality to which he can adapt himself only by hard work. When he selects news of the other kind, he usually withdraws from the world of threatening reality toward the dream world.
For any individual, of course, the boundaries of these two classes are not stable. For example, a
sociologist may read news of crime as a social problem, rather than for its immediate reward. A
coach may read a sports story for its threat value: he may have to play that team next week. A
politician may read an account of his latest successful public meeting, not for its delayed reward, but very much as his wife reads an account of a party. In any given story of corruption or disaster, a thoughtful reader may receive not only the immediate reward of indirect experience, but also the
delayed reward of information and preparedness. Therefore, while the division of categories holds in general, an individual’s tendency may transfer any story from one kind of reading to another, or
divide the experience between the two kinds of reward.
81.请阅读下面文字及图表,并按照要求用英语写一篇 150 词左右的文章. 第五部分: 书面表达
[写作内容]1. 用约 30 个单词概述上述信息的主要内容;2. 结合上述信息,简要分析导致交通问题的主要原因;3. 根据你的分析,从社会规范(rules and regulations)和个人行为两方面谈谈你得到的启示(不少于两点)。
[写作要求]1. 写作过程中不能直接引用原文语句; 2. 作文中不能出现真实姓名和学校名称;3. 不必写标题。