• 2015年高考真题 英语 (江苏卷)
单选题 本大题共15小题,每小题1分,共15分。在每小题给出的4个选项中,有且只有一项是符合题目要求。
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21. The number of smokers, _____ is reported, has dropped by 17 percent in just one year.

Ait

Bwhich

Cwhat

Das

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22. Schools should be lively places where individuals are encouraged to _____ their greatest potential.

Aaccelerate

Bimprove

Cperform

Ddevelop

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23. —Jim, can you work this Sunday?

—________? I’ve been working for two weeks on end.

AWhy me

BWhy not

CWhat if

DSo what

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24. Much time _____ sitting at a desk, office workers are generally troubled by health problems.

Abeing spent

Bhaving spent

Cspent

Dspending

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25. _____ Li Bai, a great Chinese poet, was born is known to the public, but some won’t accept it.

AThat

BWhy

CWhere

DHow

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27. The university started some new language programs to _____ the country’s Silk Road Economic Belt.

Aapply to

Bcater for

Cappeal to

Dhunt for

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26. It is so cold that you can’t go outside _____ fully covered in thick clothes.

Aif

Bunless

Conce

Dwhen

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28. It might have saved me some trouble ______ the schedule.

Adid I know

Bhave I known

Cdo I know

Dhad I known

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29. The whole team _____ Cristiano Ronaldo , and he seldom lets them down.

Await on

Bfocus on

Ccount on

Dcall on

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32. Some schools will have to make ______ in agreement with the national soccer reform.

Ajudgments

Badjustments

Ccomments

Dachievements

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31. The police officers decided to conduct a thorough and _______ review of the case.

Acomprehensive

Bcomplicated

CConscious

Dcrucial

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30. The real reason why prices ____ , and still are, too high is complex, and no short discussion can satisfactorily explain this problem.

AWere

Bwill be

Chave been

Dhad been

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33. —Why didn’t you invite John to your birthday party?

—Well, you know he’s _______ .

Aan early bird

Ba wet blanket

Ca lucky dog

Da tough nut

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34. Many of the things we now benefit from would not be around _______ Thomas Edison.

Athanks to

Bregardless of

Caside from

Dbut for

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35. —Go and say sorry to your Mom, Dave.

—I’d like to, but I’m afraid she won’t be happy with my ______ .

Arequests

Bexcuses

Capologies

Dregrets

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完型填空 本大题共20小题,每小题 1.00分,共20分。
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【分还在】20

请阅读下面短文, 从短文后各题所给的 A、B、C、D 四个选项中, 选出最佳选项, 并在答题卡上将该项涂黑。

I was required to read one of Bernie Siegel’s books in college and was hooked on his positivity from that moment on. The stories of his unconventional 36 and the exceptional patients he wrote about were so 37 to me and had such a big 38 on how I saw life from then on. Who knew that so many years later I would look to Dr. Bernie and his CDs again to 39 my own cancer experience?

I’m an ambitious 40, and when I started going through chemo (化疗) , even though I ’m a very 41 person, I lost my drive to write. I was just too tired and not in the 42 . One day , while waiting to go in for 43 , I had one of Dr. Bernie’s books in my hand. Another patient 44 what I was reading and struck up a conversation with me 45 he had one of his books with him as well. It 46 that among other things, he was an eighty-year-old writer. He was47 a published author, and he was currently 48 on a new book.

We would see each other at various times and 49 friends. Sometimes he wore a duck hat, and I would tell myself, he was definitely a(n) 50 of Dr. Bernie. He really put a 51 on my face. He unfortunately 52last year due to his cancer, 53 he left a deep impression on me and gave me the 54 to pick up my pen again. I 55 t o myself, “If he can do it, then so can I.”

36.

Atastes

Bideas

Cnotes

Dmemories

37.

Aamazing

Bshocking

Camusing

Dstrange

38.

Astrike

Bpush

Cchallenge

Dimpact

39 .

Alearn from

Bgo over

Cget through

Drefer to

40.

Areader

Bwriter

Ceditor

Ddoctor

41.

Apositive

Bagreeable

Chumorous

Dhonest

42.

Amood

Bposition

Cstate

Dway

43.

Aadvice

Breference

Cprotection

Dtreatment

44.

Aviewed

Bknew

Cnoticed

Dwondered

45.

Awhile

Bbecause

Calthough

Dproviding

46.

Acame out

Bworked out

Cproved out

Dturned out

47.

Anaturally

Bmerely

Chopefully

Dactually

48.

Adeciding

Binvesting

Cworking

Drelying

49.

Abecame

Bhelped

C. missed

Dvisited

50.

Apatient

Boperator

Cfan

Dpublisher

51.

Asign

Bsmile

Cmark

Dmask

52.

Ashowed up

Bset off

Cfell down

Dpassed away

53.

Asince

Bbut

Cso

Dfor

54.

Aguidance

Btrust

Copportunity

Dinspiration

55.

Apromised

Bswore

Cthought

Dreplied

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阅读理解 本大题共4小题,每小题2分,共8分。阅读短文,完成下列小题。
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(C)

Suppose you become a leader in an organization. It’s very likely that you’ll want to have volunteers to help with the organization’s activities. To do so, it should help to understand why people undertake volunteer work and what keeps their interest in the work.

Let’s begin with the question of why people volunteer. Researchers have identified several factors that motivate people to get involved. For example, people volunteer to express personal values related to unselfishness, to expand their range of experiences, and to strengthen social relationships. If volunteer positions do not meet these needs, people may not wish to participate. To select volunteers, you may need to understand the motivations of the people you wish to attract.

People also volunteer because they are required to do so. To increase levels of community service, some schools have launched compulsory volunteer programs. Unfortunately, these programs can shift people’s wish of participation from an internal factor (e.g., “I volunteer because it’s important to me”) to an external factor (e.g., “I volunteer because I’m required to do so”). When that happens, people become less likely to volunteer in the future. People must be sensitive to this possibility when they make volunteer activities a must.

Once people begin to volunteer, what leads them to remain in their positions over time? To answer this question, researchers have conducted follow-up studies in which they track volunteers over time. For instance, one study followed 238 volunteers in Florida over a year. One of the most important factors that influenced their satisfaction as volunteers was the amount of suffering they experienced in their volunteer positions. Although this result may not surprise you, it leads to important practical advice. The researchers note that attention should be given to “training methods that would prepare volunteers for troublesome situations or provide them with strategies for coping with the problem they do experience”.

Another study of 302 volunteers at hospitals in Chicago focused on individual differences in the degree to which people view “volunteer” as an important social role. It was assumed that those people for whom the role of volunteer was most part of their personal identity would also be most likely to continue volunteer work. Participants indicated the degree to which the social role mattered by responding to statements such as “Volunteering in Hospital is an important part of who I am.”Consistent with the researchers’ expectations, they found a positive correlation (正相关) between the strength of role identity and the length of time people continued to volunteer. These results, once again, lead to concrete advice: “Once an individual begins volunteering, continued efforts might focus on developing a volunteer role identity.... Items like T-shirts that allow volunteers to be recognized publicly for their contributions can help strengthen role identity”.

61. People volunteer mainly out of ______ .

Aacademic requirements

Bsocial expectations

Cfinancial rewards

Dinternal needs

62. What can we learn from the Florida study?

AFollow-up studies should last for one year.

BVolunteers should get mentally prepared.

CStrategy training is a must in research.

DVolunteers are provided with concrete advice.

63. What is most likely to motivate volunteers to continue their work?

AIndividual differences in role identity.

BPublicly identifiable volunteer T-shirts.

CRole identity as a volunteer.

DPractical advice from researchers.

64. What is the best title of the passage?

AHow to Get People to Volunteer

BHow to Study Volunteer Behaviors

CHow to Keep Volunteers’ Interest

DHow to Organize Volunteer Activities

分值: 8分 查看题目解析 >
阅读理解 本大题共3小题,每小题2分,共6分。阅读短文,完成下列小题。
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(B)

In the United States alone, over 100 million cell-phones are thrown away each year. Cell-phones are part of a growing mountain of electronic waste like computers and personal digital assistants. The electronic waste stream is increasing three times faster than traditional garbage as a whole.

Electronic devices contain valuable metals such as gold and silver. A Swiss study reported that while the weight of electronic goods represented by precious metals was relatively small in comparison to total waste, the concentration (含量) of gold and other precious metals was higher in So-called e-waste than in naturally occurring minerals.

Electronic wastes also contain many poisonous metals. Even when the machines are recycled and the harmful metals removed, the recycling process often is carried out in poor countries, in practically uncontrolled ways which allow many poisonous substances to escape into the environment.

Creating products out of raw materials creates much more waste material, up to 100 times more, than the material contained in the finished products. Consider again the cell-phone, and imagine the mines that produced those metals, the factories needed to make the box and packaging(包装) it came in. Many wastes produced in the producing process are harmful as well.

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency notes that most waste is dangerous in that “the production, distribution, and use of products — as well as management of the resulting waste — all result in greenhouse gas release.” Individuals can reduce their contribution by creating less waste at the start — for instance, buying reusable products and recycling.

In many countries the concept of extended producer responsibility is being considered or has been put in place as an incentive (动机) for reducing waste. If producers are required to take back packaging they use to sell their products, would they reduce the packaging in the first place?

Governments’ incentive to require producers to take responsibility for the packaging they produce is usually based on money. Why, they ask, should cities or towns be responsible for paying to deal with the bubble wrap (气泡垫) that encased your television?

From the governments’ point of view, a primary goal of laws requiring extended producer responsibility is to transfer both the costs and the physical responsibility of waste management from the government and tax-payers back to the producers.

58. By mentioning the Swiss study, the author intends to tell us that _________ .

Athe weight of e-goods is rather small

BE-waste deserves to be made good use of

Cnatural minerals contain more precious metals

Dthe percentage of precious metals is heavy in e-waste

 59. The responsibility of e-waste treatment should be extended_________ .

  

Afrom producers to governments 

Bfrom governments to producers

Cfrom individuals to distributors 

Dfrom distributors to governments

60. What does the passage mainly talk about?

AThe increase in e-waste.

BThe creation of e-waste.

CThe seriousness of e-waste.

DThe management of e-waste.

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阅读理解 本大题共2小题,每小题2分,共4分。阅读短文,完成下列小题。
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请阅读下列短文, 从短文后各题所给的 A、B、C、D 四个选项中, 选出最佳选项

(A)

56. According to the Code, visitors should act _______ .

Awith care and respect

Bwith relief and pleasure

Cwith caution and calmness

Dwith attention and observation

57. What are you encouraged to do when travelling in New Zealand?

ATake your own camping facilities.

BBury glass far away from rivers.

CFollow the track for the sake of plants.

DObserve signs to approach nesting birds.

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阅读理解 本大题共6小题,每小题2分,共12分。阅读短文,完成下列小题。
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(D)

Freedom and Responsibility

Freedom’s challenge in the Digital Age is a serious topic. We are facing today a strange new world and we are all wondering what we are going to do with it.

Some 2,500 years ago Greece discovered freedom. Before that there was no freedom. There were great civilizations, splendid empires, but no freedom anywhere. Egypt and Babylon were both tyrannies, one very powerful man ruling over helpless masses.

In Greece, in Athens (雅典), a little city in a little country, there were no helpless masses. And Athenians willingly obeyed the written laws which they themselves passed, and the unwritten, which must be obeyed if free men live together. They must show each other kindness and pity and the many qualities without which life would be very painful unless one chose to live alone in the desert. The Athenians never thought that a man was free if he could do what he wanted. A man was free if he was self-controlled. To make yourself obey what you approved was freedom. They were saved from looking at their lives as their own private affair. Each one felt responsible for the welfare of Athens, not because it was forced on him from the outside, but because the city was his pride and his safety. The essential belief of the first free government in the world was liberty for all men who could control themselves and would take responsibility for the state.

But discovering freedom is not like discovering computers. It cannot be discovered once for all. If people do not prize it, and work for it, it will go. Constant watch is its price. Athens changed. It was a change that took place without being noticed though it was of the extreme importance, a spiritual change which affected the whole state. It had been the Athenian’ s pride and joy to give to their city. That they could get material benefits from her never entered their minds. There had to be a complete change of attitude before they could look at the city as an employer who paid her citizens for doing her work. Now instead of men giving to the state, the state was to give to them. What the people wanted was a government which would provide a comfortable life for them; and with this as the primary object, ideas of freedom and self-reliance and responsibility were neglected to the point of disappearing. Athens was more and more looked on as a cooperative business possessed of great wealth in which all citizens had a right to share.

Athens reached the point when the freedom she really wanted was freedom from responsibility. There could be only one result. If men insisted on being free from the burden of self-dependence and responsibility for the common good, they would cease to be free. Responsibility is the price every man must pay for freedom. It is to be had on no other terms. Athens, the Athens of Ancient Greece, refused responsibility; she reached the end of freedom and was never to have it again.

But, “the excellent becomes the permanent”, Aristotle said. Athens lost freedom forever, but freedom was not lost forever for the world. A great American, James Madison, referred to: “The capacity (能力) of mankind for self-government.” No doubt he had not an idea that he was speaking Greek. Athens was not in the farthest background of his mind, but once man has a great and good idea, it is never completely lost. The Digital Age cannot destroy it. Somehow in this or that man’s thought such an idea lives though unconsidered by the world of action. One can never be sure that it is not on the point of breaking out into action only sure that it will do so sometime.

65. What does the underlined word “tyrannies” in Paragraph 2 refer to?

ACountries where their people need help.

BPowerful states with higher civilization.

CSplendid empires where people enjoy freedom.

DGovernments ruled with absolute power.

66. People believing in freedom are those who________ .

Aregard their life as their own business

Bseek gains as their primary object

Cbehave within the laws and value systems

Dtreat others with kindness and pity

67. What change in attitude took place in Athens?

AThe Athenians refused to take their responsibility.

BThe Athenians no longer took pride in the city.

CThe Athenians benefited spiritually from the government.

DThe Athenians looked on the government as a business.

68. What does the sentence “There could be only one result.” in Paragraph 5 mean?

AAthens would continue to be free.

BAthens would cease to have freedom.

CFreedom would come from responsibility.

DFreedom would stop Athens from self-dependence.

69. Why does the author refer to Aristotle and Madison?

AThe author is hopeful about freedom.

BThe author is cautious about self-government.

CThe author is skeptical of Greek civilization.

DThe author is proud of man’s capacity.

70. What is the author’s understanding of freedom?

AFreedom can be more popular in the digital age.

BFreedom may come to an end in the digital age.

CFreedom should have priority over responsibility.

DFreedom needs to be guaranteed by responsibility.

分值: 12分 查看题目解析 >
语法填空 本大题共10小题,每小题1分,共10分。把答案填写在题中横线上。
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请阅读下面短文,并根据所读内容在文章后表格中的空格里填入一个最恰当的单词。

注意: 请将答案写在答题卡上相应题号的横线上。 每个空格只填一个单词。

People select news in expectation of a reward. This reward may be either of two kinds. One is

related to what Freud calls the Pleasure Principle, the other to what he calls the Reality Principle.

For want of better names, we shall call these two classes immediate reward and delayed reward.

In general, the kind of news which may be expected to give immediate reward are news of

crime and corruption, accidents and disasters, sports, social events, and human interest. Delayed

reward may be expected from news of public affairs, economic matters, social problems, science,

education, and health.

News of the first kind pays its rewards at once. A reader can enjoy an indirect experience

without any of the dangers or stresses involved. He can tremble wildly at an axe-murder, shake his

head sympathetically and safely at a hurricane, identify himself with the winning team, laugh

understandingly at a warm little story of children or dogs.

News of the second kind, however, pays its rewards later. It sometimes requires the reader to

tolerate unpleasantness or annoyance — as, for example, when he reads of the threatening foreign situation, the mounting national debt, rising taxes, falling market, scarce housing, and cancer. It has a kind of “threat value.” It is read so that the reader may be informed and prepared. When a reader selects delayed reward news, he pulls himself into the world of surrounding reality to which he can adapt himself only by hard work. When he selects news of the other kind, he usually withdraws from the world of threatening reality toward the dream world.

For any individual, of course, the boundaries of these two classes are not stable. For example, a

sociologist may read news of crime as a social problem, rather than for its immediate reward. A

coach may read a sports story for its threat value: he may have to play that team next week. A

politician may read an account of his latest successful public meeting, not for its delayed reward, but very much as his wife reads an account of a party. In any given story of corruption or disaster, a thoughtful reader may receive not only the immediate reward of indirect experience, but also the

delayed reward of information and preparedness. Therefore, while the division of categories holds in general, an individual’s tendency may transfer any story from one kind of reading to another, or

divide the experience between the two kinds of reward.

分值: 10分 查看题目解析 >
书面表达 本大题共25分。
1

81.请阅读下面文字及图表,并按照要求用英语写一篇 150 词左右的文章.  第五部分: 书面表达

[写作内容]1. 用约 30 个单词概述上述信息的主要内容;2. 结合上述信息,简要分析导致交通问题的主要原因;3. 根据你的分析,从社会规范(rules and regulations)和个人行为两方面谈谈你得到的启示(不少于两点)。

[写作要求]1. 写作过程中不能直接引用原文语句; 2. 作文中不能出现真实姓名和学校名称;3. 不必写标题。

[评分标准]

内容完整,语言规范,语篇连贯,词数适当。

分值: 25分 查看题目解析 >
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