Tyler was born infected with HIV and his mother was also infected.From the very beginning of his life,he was dependent on medications (药物) to enable him to survive.When he was five,he had a tube surgically(外科手术上) inserted in a vein（静脉）in his chest.This tube was connected to a pump,which he carried in a small backpack on his back.Medications were connected to this pump and were continuously supplied through this tube to his bloodstream. At times,he also needed supplemented oxygen to support his breathing.
Tyler wasn't willing to give up one single moment of his childhood to this deadly disease.It was not unusual to find him playing and racing around his backyard,wearing his backpack and dragging his tank of oxygen behind him in his little wagon（小推车）.All of us who knew Tyler were amazed at his pure joy in being alive and the energy it gave him.Tyler's mom often made jokes on him by telling him that he moved so fast she needed to dress him in red. That way,when she peered through the window to check on him playing in the yard,she could quickly spot him.
This terrible disease eventually wore him down.He grew quite ill and,unfortunately,so did his HIV-infected mother.When it became clear that he wasn't going to survive,Tyler's mom talked to him about death.She comforted him by telling Tyler that she was dying too,and that she would be with him soon in heaven.
A few days before his death,Tyler beckoned(召唤) me over to his hospital bed and whispered,"I might die soon. I'm not scared.When I die,please dress me in red.Mom promised she's coming to heaven,too.I'll be playing when she gets there,and I want to make sure she can find me."
1．Why did Tyler wear a backpack on his back when he was young?
2．Tyler asked the writer to dress him in red when he died in order to .
3．What’s Tyler’s attitude towards death?
4．What does the writer want to tell us by writing this passage?
We can achieve knowledge either actively or passively.We achieve it actively by direct experience,by testing and proving an idea,or by reasoning.
We achieve knowledge passively by being told by someone else.Most of the learning that takes place in the classroom and the kind that happens when we watch TV or read newspapers or magazines is passive.Conditioned as we are to passive learning,it’s not surprising that we depend on it in our everyday communication with friends and co–workers.
Unfortunately,passive learning has a serious problem.It makes us tend to accept what we are told even when it is little more than hearsay（传闻）and rumor.
Did you ever play the game Rumor? It begins when one person writes down a message but doesn’t show it to anyone.Then the person whispers it,word for word,to another person.That person,in turn,whispers it to still another, and so on,through all the people playing the game.The last person writes down the message word for word as he or she hears it.Then the two written statements are compared.Typically,the original message has changed.
That’s what happens in daily life.The simple fact that people repeat a story in their own words changes the story. Then,too,most people listen imperfectly.And many enjoy adding their own creative touch to a story,trying to improve on it,stamping it with their own personal style.Yet those who hear it think they know.
This process is also found among scholars and authors: A statement of opinion by one writer may be restated as fact by another,who may in turn be quoted by yet another; and this process may continue,unless it occurs to someone to question the facts on which the original writer based his opinion or to challenge the interpretation he placed upon those facts.
5．According to the passage,active learning may occur in .
6．What does the underlined word “it” in Paragraph 2 refer to?
7．The game Rumor is mentioned in Paragraph 4 in order to tell readers that .
8．What can be inferred from the text?
Four great railway journeys
Travelling by rail holds a romantic and old-fashioned appeal that can’t be matched by flying or driving.By taking the slow route,you get to experience and interact with an area in a completely different way.
The Rocky Mountaineer
Where: Canada,from Vancouver to Banff,Jasper and Calgary.
When: In June,which is springtime in the Rockies,complete with blooming flowers and abundant wildlife.
Duration: between two and eight days,travelling only in daylight,staying in luxury hotels.
Highlights: Splendid views of Rocky mountains,incredible luxury at every stage of the trip,traditional native storytelling,wine classes and natural history workshop.
Where: Mexico.It begins its journey in the mountains of Chihuahua and finishes on the Sinaloa coast.
When: In the rainy season,from June to October,you’ll get lush vegetation(丰富的植被) and blooming cacti(仙人掌),although mid-summer (July) temperatures can reach 44 °C.
Duration: Doing the route straight through takes 14 hours,but you’ll want to stop off overnight and explore traditional towns along the way.
Highlights: The train winds its way down through 656 km of the spectacular Copper Canyon (which is deeper than the Grand Canyon),over 37 precarious-looking bridges and through 86 tunnels.Local people sell crafts and foods along the route.
Where: Australia,from Adelaide to Darwin via Alice Springs.
When: Going during the wet season (December,January) will allow you to see more wildlife and tropical splendour in the north,though peak season is usually the winter.
Duration: Going straight through takes 52 hours.There are disembarkation points（登陆点）from which you can take tours.
Highlights: Going through Australia’s Red Centre with cobalt-blue skies,red earth and not much else – a beautiful and serene（宁静的）experience.
The Royal Scotsman
Where: Travels around the Scottish Highlands or all the way around Great Britain.
When: Warmer weather and up to 20 hours of daylight in June makes it the perfect time to watch ospreys soaring (鱼鹰飞翔)over mirror-like lochs（湖）,or go in October for autumn colours and the rather vocal stag-rutting season.
Duration: Trips can be as short as two days or as long as seven.Highlights: Possibly the most expensive train journey in the world.You’ll be treated like a member of the monarchy（皇室）.Indulgent（放纵的）cuisine,fine wines and carriages that look like rooms at Balmoral Castle await those willing to part with a minimum of £2350 per person for a two-night trip.
9．Which one of the following journey has the shortest duration?
10．Visitors may have the opportunity to try some wine in .
11．If a Chinese family wants to have a travel during the Spring Festival,which one would be suitable for them?
Most episodes of absent-minded-forgetting where you left something or wondering why you just entered a room-are caused by a simple lack of attention,says Schacter.“You’re supposed to remember something,but you haven’t encoded it deeply.”
Encoding,Schacter explains,is a special way of paying attention to an event that has a major impact on recalling it later.Failure to encode properly can create annoying situation.If you put your mobile phone in a pocket,for example,and don’t pay attention to what you did because you’re involved in a conversation,you’ll probably forget that the phone is in the jacket now hanging in your wardrobe(衣柜).“Your memory itself isn’t failing you,” says Schacter,“Rather,you didn’t give your memory system the information it needed.”
Lack of interest can also lead to absent-mindedness.“A man who recite sports statistics from 30 years ago,”says Zelinski,“may not remember to drop a letter in the mailbox.”Women have slightly better memories than men, possibly because they are more interested in what’s happening around them,and memory relies on just that.
Visual cues(提示)can help prevent absent-mindedness,says Schacter.“But be sure the cue is clear and available,”he cautions.If you want to remember to take a medication with lunch,put the bill bottle on the kitchen table-don’t leave it in the medicine chest and write yourself a note that you keep in a pocket.
Another common episode of absent-mindedness:walking into a room and wondering why you’re there.Most likely,you were thinking about something else.“Everyone does this from time to time,” says Zelinski.The best thing to do is to return to where you were before entering the room,and you’ll likely remember.
12．What does the underlined word “episode” in Paragraph 1 probably mean?
13．According to the passage,women have better memories than men probably because .
14．What can help prevent absent-mindedness according to Schacter?
15．What is the best title for the text?
Mandarin(普通话)Chinese is the most bd blank(use) non-European language for children to learn,UK parents believe. It will boost (促进) their children’s career prospects (前景),according to 51% of parents,while 56% felt it would open their children’s minds bd blank an “exciting and dynamic” culture.Arabic and Japanese, bd blank．were both picked by 14% of parents,were the other key non-European languages.The figures were gained after 1,138 UK adults with children aged under 18 bd blank (be) questioned in a survey bd blank (conduct) by the Mandarin Excellence Programme (MEP).
French,Spanish and German were the top choices overall for young people in the UK bd blank (learn) after being picked by 57%,54% and 40% of parents respectively.
Mark Herbet,of the British Council,said: “With the global economy bd blank (become) more interconnected and the drive to boost exports,language skills are increasingly important for work and life.Mandarin Chinese is one of the bd blank (language) that matter most to the UK’s future prosperity (繁荣).If the UK is to remain competitive on the world stage,we need far more of our young people leaving school with a good grasp of Mandarin in order to bd blank (success) work abroad or for businesses here in the UK.Learning Mandarin is also a fascinating process that brings bd blank valuable understanding of Chinese culture.”
The MEP aims to help at least 5,000 young people in England to speak fluent Mandarin Chinese by 2020.
Now I’d like to share with you a strange experience I had a month before.It may sound funny,and it’s true.After a day’s hard work I went to bed early than usual.It was about two o’clock in the morning,and suddenly I woke up.I heard a noise.I got out of bed and went slow downstairs.I listened carefully.I could heard two men speaking quietly.I believed two thieves had broken into my house and I was really frightened,so I went back to upstairs,and immediately phone the police from my bedroom.The police arrived quickly.They opened front door with a special key and went into the living room.You can imagine what embarrassed I was when they came upstairs and told me we had turned the television off for me and everything was all right.
When your child is supposed to be doing homework,are they chatting with their friends on Facebook or playing games?Many studies have shown that multitasking doesn’t___bd blank___your child is probably proudly claiming they can do ten things____! Many people believe that they can__ bd blank __two or more tasks at the same time,but Dr.Edward Hallowell says this is__ bd blank __.The reality is that multitasking___ bd blank _poor job performance.
New hand-held_ bd blank ___such as smartphones,iPads,games and social networking sites make it very easy to multitask and “attention_ bd blank ___” leading to difficulty focusing on the task_ bd blank ___,such as listening in the classroom or doing homework.“__ bd blank __,the brain actually____kids for multitasking even though When your child is supposed to doing homework performance on every task gets worse and worse.Kids don't know that they are doing___ bd blank _because they feel better when they multitask,”says Dr Edward Hallowell.
__ bd blank __the appearance of hand-held devices and social networking sites,teachers have noticed a difference in__ bd blank __performance,critical thinking skills and how information is__ bd blank __.“Multitasking prevents people from gaining a deep understanding of the information they are trying to learn,”says Dr Edward Hallowell.Kids have a difficult time sticking with a ”difficult to understand" topic and_ bd blank ___to allow themselves to be distracted(分散的),to tune out and switch_ bd blank __ to Facebook or using their cell phones__ bd blank __working harder at understanding a difficult subject or problem.In the long____,multitasking affects grades.One study showed that kids that use the Internet while in class did__ bd blank __on tests resulting in lower grades.
What makes people successful? Take a look around and talk to your friends and seniors who are very successful, you will see all of them have adopted certain values which have proved important for their success.
It is evident that successful people take initiative(主动性).When they find something needs to be done,they never hesitate to do it. bd blank．.they weigh immediately what has to be done and then do it with pleasure thus strengthening their reputation.
Successful people do things with great enthusiasm,especially when they believe in what they are doing.They are motivated by their own satisfaction and the joy they get from doing their work. bd blank．.
They do not fear failure.Failures and disappointments in life are unavoidable. bd blank．.Successful people pick themselves up after a fall and try again with more determination and commitment and learn from each failure.They associate with those they can learn from and enjoy the company of those appreciating their achievement.
Having good IQ often gets a person what he wants but it’s really the EQ that keeps him there and helps him enjoy a high reputation. bd blank．.By giving respect to others,they command respect for themselves.
bd blank．.It’s better to praise others and win favor with them.So instead of complaining about a situation, successful people always try to solve it.