Land Art, sometimes referred to as Earth Art or Earthworks, is a form of art which involves using physical landscapes to create art, taking art out of the museum and into the outside world. Modern Land Art movement really got going in the 1960s, when American artists began creating Land Art on a large scale. Today, works of modern Land Art can be seen all over the world, sometimes right alongside much older pieces of Land Art created by people who lived thousands of years ago.
Land Art, which is not necessarily unchangeable, can take a number of forms. For example, in 1970 Robert Smithson created the Spiral Jetty （螺旋状防波堤）, made of a collection of stones and mud, in the Great Salt Lake. The American artist made a large jetty in a spiral shape which sticks out into the waters of the lake.
Reshaping the landscape is a common characteristic of Land Art, which can be created by moving parts around. People can also add things to the environment to create Land Art, like salt, which is added to the Spiral Jetty. It is possible to use plants. In all cases, Land Art is immovable.
Land Art is designed to gradually form, change, and eventually decay（衰落）. That’s one of the biggest differences between Land Art and most of the art one sees in the museums. Some works of art can exist only for a few hours or days. Others are exposed to rain and wind so that they develop and decay over time, which is part of the attractiveness in the eyes of the artists.
8. What can be learned from the first paragraph?
9. What do we know about Robert Smithson?
10. One of the unique characteristics of Land Art lies in ________.
11. What is the passage mainly about?
Jumanji（勇敢者的游戏）is a story for children about a very strange game—a game that becomes far too real and frightening for the players. It was a story by Chris Van Allsburg, which was later filmed in 1996, starring the famous American actor Robin Williams.
The story begins in 1869 in New Hampshire, America. Two young brothers bury a box under some trees. A hundred years later, in 1969, a boy, Alan Panish, finds the box and takes it home. He is unhappy that his father may want to send him to a boarding school. Alan’s friend, Sarah, arrives, and they open the box. Inside is a board game. At the start of tile game, some words appear: “Do you want to leave the world behind and go back to the past? Then this is the game for you.” Suddenly Alan finds that he is disappearing into the game.
The story has a deep meaning. Through his adventures Alan learns something important—if you face your fears, your problems will go away. Alan turns to face Van Pelt, the hunter who is trying to kill him. In doing so, he completes the game and returns to reality. Then he finds that his father is not going to send him to a boarding school after all.
In Jumanji, time is flexible. The film director Stephen Spielberg’s “Back to the Future” films play with time in the same way. Top scientists even tell us now that time travel is theoretically possible !
1. From the story we learn that Alan is a boy who ________.
2. Through the game Alan has realized that whenever he has difficulties he should _______.
3. What does the author mean when he says time is flexible?
It’s that time of year when people need to lock their cars. It’s not because there are a lot of criminals running around stealing cars. Rather, it’s because of good-hearted neighbors who want to share their harvest. Especially with this year’s large crop, leaving a car unlocked in my neighborhood is an invitation for someone to fill it with zucchini（西葫芦）.
My sister, Sharon, recently had a good year for tomatoes. She and her family had eaten and canned so many that they had begun to feel their skin turn slightly red. That’s when she decided it was time to share her blessings. She started calling everyone she knew. When that failed, she began asking everyone in the neighborhood, eventually finding a neighbor delighted to have the tomatoes. “Feel free to take whatever you want,” Sharon told her. Later that day, Sharon found that her garden had indeed been harvested. She felt happy that she could help someone and that the food didn’t go to waste.
A few days later, Sharon answered the door. There was the neighbor, holding a hot loaf of bread. The neighbor smiled pleasantly, “I wanted to thank you for all of the tomatoes, and I have to admit that I took a few other things and hoped you wouldn’t mind.”
Sharon couldn’t think of anything else in her garden that had been worth harvesting and said so. “Oh, but you did,” the neighbor said. “You had some of the prettiest zucchini I’ve ever seen.”
Sharon was confused. They hadn’t even planted any zucchini. But her neighbor insisted that there really were bright-green zucchini in her garden. Sharon felt curious and decided to go to see where the zucchini had grown. The two of them walked together into the backyard. When the neighbor pointed at the long green vegetables, Sharon smiled. “Well, actually, those are cucumbers（黄瓜）that we never harvested, because they got too big, soft and bitter for eating.”
The neighbor looked at Sharon, shock written all over her face. She gulped（哽住）a few times, and then, smiling, held out the bread, part of a batch she had shared all over the neighborhood. “I brought you a nice loaf of cucumber bread. I hope you like it.”
4. Why does the author ware people in the neighborhood to lock their cars?
5. How did Sharon’s friends react to the invitation to take her tomatoes?
6. What did the neighbor do in Sharon’s garden?
7. We can infer that the neighbor’s bread would taste ________.
People have been wondering why elephants do not develop cancer even though they have lifespans（寿命）that are similar to humans, living for around 50 to 70 years.
Now scientists believe they know why. A team at the University of Chicago, US has found that elephants carry a large number of genes that stop tumors（肿瘤）developing. To be precise, they found 20 copies of an anti-tumor gene called TP53 in elephants. Most other species, including humans, only carry one copy.
According to the research, the extra copies of the gene improved the animal’s sensitivity to DNA damage, which lets the cells quickly kill themselves when damaged before they can go on to form deadly tumors.
“An increased risk of developing cancer has stood in the way of the evolution of large body sizes in many animals ,” the study author Dr Vincent Lynch told The Guardian. If every living cell has the same chance of becoming cancerous（癌变的）, large creatures with a long lifespan like whales and elephants should have a greater risk of developing cancer than humans and mice. But across species, the risk of cancer does not show a connection with body mass.
This phenomenon was found by Oxford University scientist Richard Peto in the 1970s and later named “Peto’s paradox（悖论）”. Biologists believe it results from larger animals using protection that many smaller animals do not. In the elephant’s case, the making of TP53 is nature’s way of keeping this species alive.
The study also found that when the same genes were brought to life in mice, they had the same cancer resistance as elephants. This means researchers could use the discovery to develop new treatments that can help stop cancers spreading or even developing in the first place.
“Nature has already figured out how to prevent cancer,” said Joshua Schiffman, a biologist at the School of Medicine, University of Utah, US. “It’s up to us to learn how different animals deal with the problem so that we can use those strategies to prevent cancer in people.”
12. Why are elephants unlikely to develop cancer?
13. According to the passage, what has been a risk in the evolution of large animals?
14. What does the underlined part “This phenomenon” in Paragraph 5 probably refer to?
15. What can be concluded from the passage?
Study Links Video Game Use to Problems in School
A new study warns that too much time spent playing computer games could affect a child’s performance at school. 36 They show that too many hours spent playing games can reduce students’ chances of success in school.
More than 600 teenagers between the ages of 14 and 16 took part in the research project. __37 It is said to be the first ever long-term study in Northern Ireland on the influence of information technology on school test results.
The study found that teenagers who played computer games less than once a week were more successful in school than those who played them twice a day or more. 41% of the students who used gaming devices two or more times a day received passing grades on school exams. 38
The study found that social media use did not affect school performance.
Celine McStravick is the director of the National Children’s Bureau Northern Ireland. She says the study showed no connection between social media and test results. “ 39 I think that’s more because social media is part of every child’s life. It’s the way they communicate. It’s the way they keep in touch with their friends.”
Many parents say their children are becoming increasingly dependent on computer games. Some have compared gaming to a drug addiction. 40 It suggested that computer games can cause children to stay awake late at night. Less sleep makes children tired and unable to pay attention in school the next day.
A. However, the study did not explore addiction.
B. The new games are much different from older ones.
C. It was clear that social media didn’t have any effect.
D. It took place over a period of three years from 2013 to 2015.
E. That compared with 77% of those who rarely played the games.
F. Drug addiction does great harm to their health and performance at school.
G. Britain’s National Children’s Bureau Northern Ireland reported the results of the study.
I had just started my second year studying at Cambridge University when I was faced with the news I had never expected. A lump in my neck out to be cancer. I would six months of chemotherapy（化疗）.
After the shock, I was struck by this thought: my didn’t have any room for cancer. I had so much I wanted to and so many goals I wanted to chase.
I was faced with the job of telling my friends and family. Then, I had to decide whether to in Cambridge and take five exams at the end of the year. My doctor against it, and so did my parents and teachers.
My doctors and teachers convinced me that taking some time off to and relax would be the best thing for me. I could not think of anything . I did not want to a year of my life, receiving pity from those around me.
Together with my parents, I tried to persuade the university to me to stay at Cambridge and study only halt the course. At the end of the year I would take two exams. It was really a to persuade them to agree.
Treatment began and I was up and down from Cambridge to London every other week. It made me feel , but to a much lesser degree than I had expected. I was to read, eat and socialize exactly as I used to. I slept a lot and rested a lot, but I also worked hard at my studies. It gave me focus, and it also gave me purpose. Completing my at the end of term felt like a great personal victory.
I took a to continue studying while undergoing treatment, and it . I was successful in my exams—and more , I made a full recovery.
Every person facing a disease like cancer must make the that are right for them. I am _ that I made the decision that was right for me.
Have you ever been to Wuzhen? It is so beautiful a village that I had already visited it many times. Locating in Jiaxing, Zhejiang province, it has a history of about 6,000 years. Like many small towns in the southern area, which has a lot of small bridges going through clean streams. Local people live in old houses, they are very friendly. During the day, you can walk or sit on a boat to enjoying the natural scenery along the stream. The scene at night is attractively as well. There are all kinds of round and square light. Every time I look at the pictures for which I took, I will remember the water, the bridges and the houses. I love an amazing water country!
Near the town of Montignac in Southern France, visitors can find some of the most beautiful cave paintings in the world—the Lascaux Cave Paintings（拉斯科洞窟壁画）.
The history of these paintings is very interesting. Most caves are formed 61 nature under the ground, but some have entrances people can find. That’s just what happened one day in 1940. Four boys were taking 62 walk in the woods near Montignac. As they walked along, one of them noticed an unusual rock. 63 they got closer, they found it wasn’t a rock but an opening in the ground. This opening led to a cave, so they decided to have a look around it. The walls of the cave were 64 （cover）with ancient art. The boys didn’t know it, but the cave was the find of the century!
Over the years, many historians and artists came to study the art. They wanted to understand who painted the pictures and 65 they might mean. They soon realized some of the art indicated animals that were on Earth a long time ago. Many of the pictures also showed people __66 （follow）animals and trying to kill them for food. In the end, historians agreed that this was likely to be the art of a civilization that existed over 15,000 years ago.
参考词汇：邙山Mangshan Mountain；报名sign up；征文比赛essay contest