One thinks of princes and presidents as some of the most powerful people in the world; however, governments, elected or otherwise, sometimes have had to struggle with the financial powerhouses called tycoons. The word tycoon is relatively new to the English language. It is Chinese in origin but was given as a title to some Japanese generals. The term was brought to the United States, in the late nineteenth century, where it eventually was used to refer to magnates who acquired immense fortunes from sugar and cattle, coal and oil, rubber and steel, and railroads. Some people called these tycoons “capitals of industry” and praised them for their contributions to U.S. wealth and international reputation. Others criticized them as cruel “robber barons”, who would stop at nothing in pursuit of personal wealth.
The early tycoons built successful businesses, often taking over smaller companies to eliminate competition. A single company that came to control an entire market was called a monopoly. Monopolies made a few families very wealthy, but they also placed a heavy financial burden on consumers and the economy at large.
As the country expanded and railroads linked the East Coast to the West Coast, local monopolies turned into national corporations called trusts. A trust is a group of companies that join together under the control of a board of trustees. Railroad trusts are an excellent example. Railroads were privately owned and operated and often monopolized various routes, setting rates as high as they desired. The financial burden this placed on passengers and businesses increased when railroads formed trusts. Farmers, for example, had no choice but to pay, as railroads were the only means they could use to get their grain to buyers. Exorbitant (过高的) goods rates put some farmers out of business.
There were even accusations that the trusts controlled government itself by buying votes and manipulating elected officials. In 1890 Congress passed the Sherman Antitrust. Act, legislation aimed at breaking the power of such trusts. The Sherman Antitrust Act focused on two main issues. First of all, it made illegal any effort to interfere with the normal conduct of interstate trade. It also made it illegal to monopolize any part of business that operates across state lines.
Over the next 60 years or so, Congress passed other antitrust laws in an effort to encourage competition and restrict the power of larger corporations.
【语篇导读】本文是一篇说明文。介绍tycoon ，monopoly和 trust。
5. The Sherman Antitrust Act_______________.
6. One might infer from this passage that lower prices _________.
On a hot summer day, a soft drink can really take away your thirst. At home, at school, in the park or at the movies—you can find one almost anywhere.
You can see bubbles in these! Of all soft drinks sold, about 75 percent are carbonated. But be careful, carbonated soft drinks have lots of sugar and caffeine. Caffeine is not very good for you in the summer, because it takes water out of your body. And the sugar can make you overweight if you drink too much.
There are different kinds of juice. One kind is made only from fresh fruit. This kind of fruit juice may not taste sweet enough for some people, but it is nutritious. Another kind of fruit juice tastes good but has lots of sugar in it. Many young people buy this kind because the advertisements are good. It is bad for your teeth and bones to drink lots of this.
These kinds of drinks have caffeine and things that make people get excited in them. They are sometimes called “party drinks”. Doctors say that if you drink too much of this kind, you may have a heart attack.
We have lots of different kinds of bottled water, such as mineral water, purified water and distilled(蒸馏的) water. They are clean and easy to drink. But it is best not to drink very cold water. It may make your stomach feel bad.
Most of these have funny names like “Scream” and “G-Vital”. They have lots of vitamins and minerals in them. After you play sports, you may want to drink one of these.
But if you just spend your summer holiday sitting around watching TV, you won’t need them at all!
12. Which of the following is NOT suitable for you to take if you go climbing?
13. If you have to stay up late, what kind of water may help you?
14. What’s the probable reason for you to drink sports drinks after sport?
15. What’s the main purpose of the author writing this article?
Fay:Hi, Jerry. I’m thingking of applying 51______a job with a multinational(跨国的) company, but I’m worried about having an interview in English. Can you give me any good tips?
Jerry:Hmm. That’s a tough one. I guess the first thing is to try to make 52_______good impression.
Fay:That sounds good. But 53_______(serious), how canI do that?
Jerry: To begin with, you should firmly shake the interviewer’s hand and keep eye contact while 54_______(greet) him or her with a smile.
Fay:Ah, “body language” is really important, isn’t it?
Jerry: Yes. The second thing is to be confident. You gain 55________(confident) from being prepared. You should learn a little bit about the company before the interview. Find out what they do, how long they’ve been in business, 55_______their business motto is, that kind of thing.
Fay:I never 57_______(think) about that before. You’re smart, Jeery! But what should I do 58________I can’t remember an English word when I’m answering a question?
Jerry:In 59________case, you have to paraphrase. In other words, you have to explain what you want to say.
Fay:That’s very 60_______(help), Jerry. Thanks very much. Ah, one more thing. Should I ask about the salary during the interview?
Jerry: No, either let them bring up the topic of money, or wait for a second interview. Good luck!
It’s not entirely true that kids learn a second language easily, but it’s still the best time to learn. Babies are basically equipped to hear and distinguish every possible language and dialect, but once they reach 6 months old, they begin to focus on the particular sounds that exist in the languages that they’re exposed to. In this way, kids will naturally and automatically be bilingual(双语的) if they hear multiple languages on a daily basis when they are still babies..
One lady told me of her son who grew up in a very multi-cultural community working at a resort. He would naturally and easily switch from Dutch, to French, to Italian, German and English depending on who he was talking to. Of course that’s an extreme case, but it’s completely possible and easy.
It’ s not true that they will get mixed up by learning multiple languages. They may mix them up purposely simply because certain words or expressions are easier, but they won’t develop any permanent language disabilities. Quite the contrary, bilingual children have been shown to be as much as a year more advanced in learning ability development for 2 and 3 years olds.
Some kids who simply aren’t gifted at learning languages, just as some aren’t gifted at sports or music, will find it difficult to continue schooling in a foreign language. In that case, it may be better not to continue with the foreign language school. Still, it will have been an excellent opportunity for Grade One. Perhaps for Grade Two you could try a bilingual school.
In any case, learning even a small amount of a foreign language, maintaining the ability to hear and pronounce it by listening to music and movies will keep a foundation for later learning. Knowing a second language can be a great benefit for gaining employment.
1. What’s the main idea of the first paragraph?
2. What did the lady tell us about her son?
3. In which way can learning multiple languages benefit kids according to the text?
4. What should you do if your kids are not good at learning language?
At one time no one could travel on an English road faster than four miles an hour. That was the law until 1896. A man had to walk in front of a car which could not go faster than the man. At night the man had to carry a red lamp.
Once Charles Rolls brought a car from France to England, but he wanted to drive faster than four miles an hour. In order to have no trouble with the police, he had a talk with some of the police officers, who ordered their policemen to look the other way when the car came along the road. This was a good plan in the country, but not so easy to follow in the busy streets of London.
One night Rolls and some friends started from London on their journey to Cambridge. One of the men walked in front with the red lamp, but he walked as fast as he could. The police became very interested in walls and shop-fronts when they heard the car and not one of them saw it.
They reached a hill, but what a waste of time it was to drive down the hill at four miles an hour! Rolls was getting ready to jump into the car, but then he noticed a policeman who was not looking the other way. The slow car reached him.
“Good evening,” said the policeman, looking at the car.
“Good evening,” said Rolls, holding the lamp.
“One of these horseless things,” said the policeman, looking at it with interest.
“Yes,” said Rolls, and waited.
“I’ve often wanted a ride in one, but of course policemen can’t buy things like that.” He turned and looked hopefully in Rolls’s face.
“Jump in,” said Rolls.
“Thanks,” said the policeman, and did so. “Now,” he said, sitting down, “You can let it go just as you like down this hill. There isn’t another policeman on this road for a mile and a half.”
【语篇导读】本文是一篇记叙文。文章讲述的是曾经没有人在英国旅行可以一小时超过一英里，直到1896年，一个名叫 Charles Rolls的男人去英国旅行，改变了这种状况。
8．The policemen were told “to look the other way” so that _______.
9．In what way did the policemen carry out the order from their officers?
10．The policeman who said “Good evening” to Rolls wanted to _______.
11．After the policeman jumped into the car, Rolls _______.
When I walked into the classroom, the teacher was handing in the tests. I was feeling very nervous. I had not studied at all the weekend as I had thought it would be easy test.
I went through the test for many times but I could only answer three out from the twenty questions. I did not want to fail the exam. Then , I put my book under my desk, opening it and started looking for the answer. The teacher wasn’t looking at me ,but I copied something. Suddenly, I felt a hand in my shoulder! The teacher caught me cheating. I don’t know what to say. Luckily, the teacher did not punish for cheating but instead gave me a second chance.
③ 参考词汇：可持续发展 sustainable development
家庭社区活动 Community Action Project
For more than six million American children, coming home after school means coming to an empty house. 16_______ Some may hide. But all of them have something in common. They spend part of each day alone. They are called latchkey children. They are children who look after themselves while their parents work. 17_______
Lynette Long was once the headmaster of an elementary school. She said, “We had a school rule against wearing jewelry. A lot of kids had chains around their necks with keys attached. I was constantly telling them to put them inside shirts. There were so many keys. It never came to my mind what they meant.” 18________
She and her husband began talking to the children who had them. They learned of the impact working couples and single parents were having on their children. 19 _______ One in every three latchkey children the Logs talked to reported being scared. Many had nightmares and were worried about their own safety.
The most common way latchkey children deal with their fears is by hiding. 20 ________
The second is TV. They’ll often play it at high volume. It’s hard to get statistics(情况)on latchkey children, the Longs learned. Most parents are slow to admit they leave their children alone.
The passengers on the bus watched sympathetically as the attractive young woman with the white cane made her way carefully up the steps．She 31 the driver and, using her hands to feel the 32 of the seats, walked down and found the 33 which the driver had told her was empty．Then she settled in．
It had been a year since Mary, 33, 33 a medical misdiagnosis （误诊）, was suddenly thrown into a world of 35 ．Mark, her husband, was an Air Force officer and he loved Mary with all his heart．He 36 her how to rely on her other 37 , specifically her hearing, to determine where she was and 38 to adapt herself to the new environment．He helped her befriend the bus drivers who could 39 for her, and save her a seat．