OPENINGS AND PREVIEWS
Animals Out of Paper
Yolo！Productions and the Great Griffon present the play by Rajiv Joseph, in which an origami（折纸术）artist invites a teenage talent and his teacher into her studio. Merri Milwe directs. In previews. Opens Feb.12.（West Park Presbyterian Church,165 W.86th St.212-868-4444.）
Helen Mirren stars in the play by Peter Morgan，about Queen Elizabeth II of the UK and her private meetings with twelve Prime Ministers in the course of sixty years. Stephen Daldry directs. Also starring Dylan Baker and Judith Ivey. Previews begin Feb.14.（Schoenfeld，236 W.45th St.212-239-6200.）
Lin-Manuel Miranda wrote this musical about Alexander Hamilton，in which the birth of America is presented as an immigrant story. Thomas Kail directs. In previews. Opens Feb.17.（Public，425 Lafayette St.212-967-7555.）
On the Twentieth Century
Kristin Chenoweth and Peter Gallagher star in the musical comedy by Betty Comden and Adolph Green，about a Broadway producer who tries to win a movie star’s love during a cross-country train journey. Scott Ellis directs, for Roundabout Theatre Company. Previews begin Feb.12.（American Airlines Theatre, 227 W.42nd St.212-719-1300.）
21. What is the play by Rajiv Joseph probably about?.
22. Who is the director of The Audience?
23. Which play will you go to if you are interested in American history?
For Western designers, China and its rich culture have long been an inspiration for Western creative.
"It's no secret that China has always been a source(来源)of inspiration for designers," says Amanda Hill, chief creative officer at A+E Networks, a global media company and home to some of the biggest fashion(时尚)shows.
Earlier this year, the China Through A Looking Glass exhibition in New York exhibited 140 pieces of China-inspired fashionable clothing alongside Chinese works of art, with the aim of exploring the influence of Chinese aesthetics(美学)on Western fashion and how China has fueled the fashionable imagination for centuries. The exhibition had record attendance, showing that there is huge interest in Chinese influences.
"China is impossible to overlook," says Hill. "Chinese models are the faces of beauty and fashion campaigns that sell dreams to women all over the world, which means Chinese women are not just consumers of fashion — they are central to its movement. "Of course, only are today's top Western designers being influenced by China — some of the best designers of contemporary fashion are themselves Chinese." Vera Wang, Alexander Wang, Jason Wu are taking on Galiano, Albaz, Marc Jacobs-and beating them hands down in design and sales," adds Hill.
For Hill, it is impossible not to talk about China as the leading player when discussing fashion. "The most famous designers are Chinese, so are the models, and so are the consumers," she says. "China is no longer just another market; in many senses it has become the market. If you talk about fashion today, you are talking about China —its influences, its direction, its breathtaking clothes, and how young designers and models are finally acknowledging that in many ways."
24.What can we learn about the exhibition in New York?
25.What does Hill say about Chinese women?
26.What do the underlined words "taking on" in paragraph 4 mean?
27.What can be a suitable title for the text?
Before the 1830s,most newspapers were sold through annual subscriptions in America, usually $8 to $10 a year. Today $8 or $10 seems a small amount of money, but at that time these amounts were forbidding to most citizens. Accordingly, newspapers were read almost only by rich people in politics or the trades. In addition, most newspapers had little in them that would appeal to a mass audience. They were dull and visually forbidding. But the revolution that was taking place in the 1830s would change all that.
The trend, then, was toward the "penny paper"— a term referring to papers made widely available to the public. It meant any inexpensive newspaper; perhaps more importantly it meant newspapers that could be bought in single copies on the street.
This development did not take place overnight. It had been possible(but not easy)to buy single copies of newspapers before 1830,but this usually meant the reader had to go down to the printer's office to purchase a copy. Street sales were almost unknown. However, within a few years, street sales of newspapers would be commonplace in eastern cities. At first the price of single copies was seldom a penny—usually two or three cents was charged —and some of the older well-known papers charged five or six cents. But the phrase "penny paper " caught the public's fancy, and soon there would be papers that did indeed sell for only a penny.
This new trend of newspapers for "the man on the street" did not begin well. Some of the early ventures(企业)were immediate failures. Publishers already in business, people who were owners of successful papers, had little desire to change the tradition. It took a few youthful and daring businessmen to get the ball rolling.
28.Which of the following best describes newspapers in America before the 1830s?
29.What did street sales mean to newspapers?
30.Who were the newspapers of the new trend targeted at?
31.What can we say about the birth of the penny paper?
Monkeys seem to have a way with numbers.
A team of researchers trained three Rhesus monkeys to associate 26 clearly different symbols consisting of numbers and selective letters with 0-25 drops of water or juice as a reward. The researchers then tested how the monkeys combined—or added—the symbols to get the reward.
Here's how Harvard Medical School scientist Margaret Livingstone, who led the team, described the experiment: In their cages the monkeys were provided with touch screens. On one part of the screen, a symbol would appear, and on the other side two symbols inside a circle were shown. For example, the number 7 would flash on one side of the screen and the other end would have 9 and 8. If the monkeys touched the left side of the screen they would be rewarded with seven drops of water or juice; if they went for the circle, they would be rewarded with the sum of the numbers—17 in this example.
After running hundreds of tests, the researchers noted that the monkeys would go for the higher values more than half the time, indicating that they were performing a calculation, not just memorizing the value of each combination.
When the team examined the results of the experiment more closely, they noticed that the monkeys tended to underestimate（低估）a sum compared with a single symbol when the two were close in value—sometimes choosing, for example, a 13 over the sum of 8 and 6. The underestimation was systematic: When adding two numbers, the monkeys always paid attention to the larger of the two, and then added only a fraction（小部分）of the smaller number to it.
"This indicates that there is a certain way quantity is represented in their brains, "Dr. Livingstone says. “But in this experiment what they're doing is paying more attention to the big number than the little one.”
32. What did the researchers do to the monkeys before testing them?
33. How did the monkeys get their reward in the experiment?
34. What did Livingstone's team find about the monkeys?
35. In which section of a newspaper may this text appear?
In an online class, developing healthypatterns of communication with professors is very important. 36 While I have only listed twoof each, these are obviously many other situations that can arise. Studentsshould be able to extend the logic（逻辑）of each to their particular circumstance.
• 37 Questions about subjectcontent are generally welcomed. Before asking questions about the coursedesign, read the syllabus（教学大纲）and learning management system information to be sure the answerisn't hiding in plain sight.
• Participate in discussion forums（论坛）, blogs and other open-endedforums for dialogue. 38 Be sure to stay on topic and not offerirrelevant information. Make a point, and make it safe for others to do thesame.
• Don't share personal information orstories. Professors are not trained nurses, financial aid experts or your bestfriends. If you are in need of a deadline extension, simply explain the situationto the professor. 39
• Don't openly express annoyance at aprofessor or class. 40 Whena student attacks a professor on the social media, the language used actuallysays more about the student. If there is truly a concern about a professor'sprofessionalism or ability, be sure to use online course evaluations to calmlyoffer your comments.
A. That's what they are for.
B. Turn to an online instructor for help.
C. If more information is needed, they willask.
D. Remember that online professors get a lotof emails.
E. Below are some common do’s and don’ tsfor online learners.
F. Everyone has taken a not-so-great classat one time or another.
G. Ask questions, but make sure they aregood, thoughtful questions.
The small town of Rjukan in Norway is situated between several mountainsand does not get direct sunlight from late September to mid-March— 41 six months out of the year.
Of course, we 42 it when the sun is shining," says KarinRo, who works for the town’s tourism office. “We see the sky is 43 ,but down in the valley it’s darker — it’s like on a 44 day.”
But that 45 whena system of high-tech 46 wasintroduced to reflect sunlight from neighboring peaks（山峰）into the valley below. Wednesday, residents（居民）of Rjukan 47 their very first ray of winter sunshine: A rowof reflective boards on a nearby mountainside were put to 48 .The mirrors are controlled by a computer that 49 themto turn along with the sun throughout the 50 and to close during windy weather. They reflecta concentrated beam（束）oflight onto the town’s central 51 ,creating an area of sunlight roughly 600 square meters. When the light 52 ,Rjukan residents gathered together.
“People have been 53 thereand standing there and taking 54 of each other," Ro says. "The townsquare was totally 55 . I think almost all the people in thetown were there. "The 3,500 residents cannot all 56 the sunshine at the same time. 57 ,the new light feels like more than enough for the town’s 58 residents.
"It's not very 59 ,” she says, "but it is enough whenwe are 60 .”
41. A. only B. obviously C.nearly D. precisely
42. A. fear B. believe C.hear D. notice
43. A. empty B. blue C. high D. wide
44. A. cloudy B. normal C. different D.warm
45. A. helped B. changed C. happened D. mattered
46. A. computers B. telescopes C.mirrors D. cameras
47. A. remembered B. forecasted C. received D. imagined
48. A. repair B. risk C. rest D. use
49. A. forbids B. directs C. predicts D. follows
50. A. day B. night C.month D. year
51. A. library B. hall C. square D.street
52. A. appeared B. returned C.faded D. stopped
53. A. driving B. hiding C.camping D. siting
54. A. pictures B. notes C. care D. hold
55. A. new B. full C.flat D. silent
56. A. block B. avoid C.enjoy D. store
57. A. Instead B. However C. Gradually D. Similarly
58. A. nature-loving B. energy-saving C. weather-beaten D. sun-starved
59. A. big B. clear C.cold D. easy
60. A. trying B. waiting C.watching D. sharing
On our way to the house，it was raining 61 hard that we couldn't help wondering how longit would take 62 （get）there. It was in the middle of Pearl City.
We were first greeted with the barkingby a pack 63 dogs，seven to be exact. They were well trained by their masters 64 had great experience with caring for theseanimals. Our hosts shared many of their experiences and 65 （recommend）wonderful places to eat，shop，andvisit. For breakfast，we wereable to eat papaya（木瓜）andother fruits from their trees in the backyard.
When they were free from work，they invited us to local events and let us know ofan interesting 66 （compete）towatch，together with the story behind it. Theyalso shared with us many 67 （tradition）stories about Hawaii that were 68 （huge）popularwith tourists. On the last day of our week-long stay，we 69 （invite）to attend a private concert on a beautiful farm on the North Shore underthe stars， 70 （listen）tomusicians and meeting interesting locals.
I've had many dreams since I was achild. Now my dream is to opens a cafe. Though it may appear simple, it requireda lot of ideas and efforts. What I want is not just an ordinarily cafe but avery special one. I want my cafe have a special theme such as like "TangDynasty". In the cafe, customers will enjoy yourselves in the historicalenvironment what is created for them. If I succeed in manage one, I will openmore. I wish to have a chain of cafes in many different city. Each of my cafeswill have a different theme and an unique style.